This paper presents the value proposition of blockchain for Port Community Systems (PCS) by dissecting the business processes in port logistics and unfolding functionalities of blockchain in lowering the transaction cost. This paper contributes to the research by a detailed technical assessment of the plethora of currently available blockchain platforms and consensus mechanisms, against the identified requirements in this specific use case. The results of this technical assessment highlight the central value proposition of blockchain for landlord ports, which is independency from a central authority as the controlling agent. Bridging between two research domains of Information Technology and Logistics, this paper proposes the preferred architectural design requirements of a blockchain-based PCS, including provisioning private sidechains, modular design with inter-chain interoperability, and encrypted off-chain data storage. Availability—the readiness for correct service, and reliability—the continuity of correct service, are heavily reliant on the right choice being made for blockchain design for such a complex use case. A preliminary comparative analysis among different decentralisation levels in this paper suggests that a permissioned public blockchain offers the best trade-off in performance measures for this use case. This technical review identifies six research agenda from a design perspective.
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