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Open AccessArticle

Study of the Influence of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors on Consumption of Dairy Products: Preliminary Study in Portugal and Brazil

CERNAS Research Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal
Faculty of Food and Nutrition Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), 85503-390 Pato Branco, Brazil
Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, 6001-909 Castelo Branco, Portugal
Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1775;
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivations Associated with Food Choices and Eating Practices)
Sociodemographic characteristics, including regional variations, have been associated with different food consumption patterns. Behavioral factors and lifestyle variables may also contribute to different food dietary trends. In this way, the present study intended to investigate the consumption habits of the most relevant types of dairy products around the world and relate them to sociodemographic factors, for example, age, sex, education and country as well as with some anthropometric and behavioral aspects, for example, body mass index, satisfaction with body weight and exercise or sedentary lifestyles. One other objective of the study was to categorize the lifestyles of the participants, according to measured variables linked with hours of inactivity or exercise, in order to use these as possible differentiating variables for the consumption of dairy products. The study involved a questionnaire survey undertaken on a non-probabilistic convenience sample of participants from Portugal (PT) and Brazil (BR), and participation was voluntary and anonymous. The data analysis involved different statistical techniques: basic statistics, chi-square tests, factor analysis, cluster analysis and tree classification analysis. The results showed that semi skimmed milk is never consumed by about half of the participants (47.4% for PT and 46.7 for BR), and those numbers increase for skimmed (64.8% for PT and 50.9% for BR), chocolate flavored milk (82.6% for PT and 65.6% for BR) and enriched milks (94.8% for PT and 85.3% for BR). Cheeses are also consumed in the two countries by small numbers of people. The number of participants consuming imported cheeses in both countries was particularly low (only 4.0% consume these more than once a week in both countries), suggesting national products may be preferred. It was further observed that those who consume cheese do it seldom (once a week) or sometimes (2–3 times per week). Butter is also consumed by only about half of the adult population (43.8% for PT and 49.5% for BR), but the percentage of those who never consume butter increases for skimmed butter (66.0% for PT and 82.6% for BR) and unsalted butter (70.2% for PT and 69.1% for BR). The consumption of yogurts also follows similar low consumption patterns. The most frequently consumed yogurt types in Portugal are liquid (30.5% consume regularly) and natural yogurts (34.8% consume regularly), while in Brazil the most frequent are creamy fruit pulp yogurt (14.4% consume regularly), liquid (13.7% consume regularly) and Greek type yogurt (10.2% consume regularly). A factor analysis and a cluster analysis established groups according to lifestyles, as follows: 1—Screeners, 2—Exercisers, 3—Travelers and 4—Others. These lifestyles were found to be influential in the consumption of dairy products for all classes of dairy tested: milk, cheese, yogurt and butter. For example, the screeners were found to consume more milk, more butter, more cheese and more yogurt. Additionally, other influential factors were age, sex, education, BMI and satisfaction with body weight. Nevertheless, country was not a meaningfully discriminant variable in relation to the other variables included in the classification analysis. The results concluded that, despite some small differences in the patterns of consumption of dairy products in both countries, the levels of consumption of dairy products are extremely low, for all classes studied (milk, cheese, yogurt or butter). Additionally, it was concluded that some factors are influential on the level of consumption of dairy products, and therefore decision makers can plan their interventions according to the characteristics of the targeted segments of the population, according to lifestyle, age, sex, education, BMI and satisfaction with body weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; cheese; butter; yogurt; questionnaire survey milk; cheese; butter; yogurt; questionnaire survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guiné, R.P.F.; Florença, S.G.; Carpes, S.; Anjos, O. Study of the Influence of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors on Consumption of Dairy Products: Preliminary Study in Portugal and Brazil. Foods 2020, 9, 1775.

AMA Style

Guiné RPF, Florença SG, Carpes S, Anjos O. Study of the Influence of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors on Consumption of Dairy Products: Preliminary Study in Portugal and Brazil. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1775.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guiné, Raquel P.F.; Florença, Sofia G.; Carpes, Solange; Anjos, Ofélia. 2020. "Study of the Influence of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors on Consumption of Dairy Products: Preliminary Study in Portugal and Brazil" Foods 9, no. 12: 1775.

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