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Open AccessArticle

Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss

1
School of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences, CECAV, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, B. Laboratorial, B1.03, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
Physics Department, School of Sciences and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta do Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3
CAP/INESC TEC—Technology and Science and FCUP-Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040055
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods Quality Assessed by Chemometrics)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. View Full-Text
Keywords: food fraud; food authentication; Salmo salar adulteration; FTIR spectroscopy; chemometrics methods food fraud; food authentication; Salmo salar adulteration; FTIR spectroscopy; chemometrics methods
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Sousa, N.; Moreira, M.J.; Saraiva, C.; De Almeida, J.M.M.M. Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss. Foods 2018, 7, 55.

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