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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla)

Food Group, Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Foods 2014, 3(2), 269-278;
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate. View Full-Text
Keywords: total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; kimchi; lactobacilli; calcium total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; kimchi; lactobacilli; calcium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wadamori, Y.; Vanhanen, L.; Savage, G.P. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla). Foods 2014, 3, 269-278.

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