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Article

Application and Effects of Ohmic-Vacuum Combination Heating on the Quality Factors of Tomato Paste

1
Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah 61004, Iraq
2
Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
3
Food and Nutritional Science Program, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Asgar Farahnaky
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122920 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Thermal Food Processing Technologies)
Ohmic-vacuum combination heating is a common method used in the food industry as a concentration process. In the present study, an OH-VC combination heating system was developed for producing tomato paste at temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C and pressure of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 bar and electric field of 1.82, 2.73, and 3.64 V/cm using a central composite design. The effects of heating conditions on the quality and sensory evaluation of tomato paste were also evaluated. Each combination of temperature, pressure, and the electric field was quantified for specific energy consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity. A decrease of 35.08% in the amount of acid ascorbic and lycopene content 19.01%, using conventional heating compared to ohmic-vacuum heating under optimized conditions, was attained. The results also highlighted an increase in the amount of HMF (69.79%) and PME (24.33%) using conventional heating compared to ohmic-vacuum heating under optimized conditions. Ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, productivity, energy efficiency was higher than conventional heating; on the other hand, HMF, PME, pH, SEC were lower than conventional heating at the applied OH-VC process. No significant effects between OH-VC and conventional heating on the TSS were observed. In addition, OH-VC heating was highly efficient in the inhibition of bacterial growth. Further, a minor effect on the sensory properties of tomato paste with OH-VC heating compared to the conventional treatment. The obtained results indicate a strong potential for an OH-VC combination heating system as a rapid-heating, high-efficiency alternative for saving electrical energy consumption and preserving nutritional value. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato; phytochemicals; ohmic-vacuum combination; microbiological stability tomato; phytochemicals; ohmic-vacuum combination; microbiological stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alkanan, Z.T.; Altemimi, A.B.; Al-Hilphy, A.R.S.; Cacciola, F.; Ibrahim, S.A. Application and Effects of Ohmic-Vacuum Combination Heating on the Quality Factors of Tomato Paste. Foods 2021, 10, 2920. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122920

AMA Style

Alkanan ZT, Altemimi AB, Al-Hilphy ARS, Cacciola F, Ibrahim SA. Application and Effects of Ohmic-Vacuum Combination Heating on the Quality Factors of Tomato Paste. Foods. 2021; 10(12):2920. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alkanan, Zina T., Ammar B. Altemimi, Asaad R.S. Al-Hilphy, Francesco Cacciola, and Salam A. Ibrahim 2021. "Application and Effects of Ohmic-Vacuum Combination Heating on the Quality Factors of Tomato Paste" Foods 10, no. 12: 2920. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122920

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