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Article

Yuck, This Biscuit Looks Lumpy! Neophobic Levels and Cultural Differences Drive Children’s Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Descriptions and Preferences for High-Fibre Biscuits

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Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research—IPP, University of Bremen and Institute for Preventions Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, 28359 Bremen, Germany
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Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AH, UK
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Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
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Institute of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Applied Sciences FH JOANNEUM, 8020 Graz, Austria
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AZTI, Food Research, Basque Research and Technological Alliance (BRTA), 48160 Derio, Spain
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Food, Health & Consumer Research, Wageningen Food & Biobased Research, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Innovation, Consumer and Sensory Sciences, Nofima, N-1430 Ås, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010021
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
Food neophobia influences food choice in school-aged children. However, little is known about how children with different degrees of food neophobia perceive food and to what extent different sensory attributes drive their liking. This paper explores liking and sensory perception of fibre-rich biscuits in school-aged children (n = 509, age 9–12 years) with different degrees of food neophobia and from five different European countries (Finland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Children tasted and rated their liking of eight commercial biscuits and performed a Check-All-That-Apply task to describe the samples and further completed a Food Neophobia Scale. Children with a higher degree of neophobia displayed a lower liking for all tasted biscuits (p < 0.001). Cross-cultural differences in liking also appeared (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between degree of neophobia and the number of CATA-terms used to describe the samples (r = −0.116, p = 0.009). Penalty analysis showed that degree of food neophobia also affected drivers of biscuit liking, where particularly appearance terms were drivers of disliking for neophobic children. Cross-cultural differences in drivers of liking and disliking were particularly salient for texture attributes. Further research should explore if optimizing appearance attributes could be a way to increase liking of fibre-rich foods in neophobic children. View Full-Text
Keywords: food neophobia; cross-cultural; penalty analysis; preference mapping; preadolescents food neophobia; cross-cultural; penalty analysis; preference mapping; preadolescents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sandvik, P.; Laureati, M.; Jilani, H.; Methven, L.; Sandell, M.; Hörmann-Wallner, M.; da Quinta, N.; Zeinstra, G.G.; Almli, V.L. Yuck, This Biscuit Looks Lumpy! Neophobic Levels and Cultural Differences Drive Children’s Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Descriptions and Preferences for High-Fibre Biscuits. Foods 2021, 10, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010021

AMA Style

Sandvik P, Laureati M, Jilani H, Methven L, Sandell M, Hörmann-Wallner M, da Quinta N, Zeinstra GG, Almli VL. Yuck, This Biscuit Looks Lumpy! Neophobic Levels and Cultural Differences Drive Children’s Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Descriptions and Preferences for High-Fibre Biscuits. Foods. 2021; 10(1):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sandvik, Pernilla, Monica Laureati, Hannah Jilani, Lisa Methven, Mari Sandell, Marlies Hörmann-Wallner, Noelia da Quinta, Gertrude G. Zeinstra, and Valérie L. Almli. 2021. "Yuck, This Biscuit Looks Lumpy! Neophobic Levels and Cultural Differences Drive Children’s Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Descriptions and Preferences for High-Fibre Biscuits" Foods 10, no. 1: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010021

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