- “The majority of faculty with research responsibilities at a small Canadian business school have publications in predatory journals” (abstract, p. 137).
- “Even honest researchers make mistakes and can be fooled into publishing in predatory journals. However, when researchers demonstrate a pattern of publishing in such journals, suspicions increase.” “It can be seen that 75 per cent of traditional faculty who have predatory journal publications have more than one such publication. Moreover, traditional faculty who have predatory publications have, on average, 4.3 predatory publications.” (p. 150).
3.3. Crawford’s Gray OA Journals
Conflicts of Interest
- Beall, J. What I learned from predatory publishers. Biochem. Med. 2017, 27, 273–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Beall, J. Predatory journals: Ban predators from the scientific record. Nature 2016, 534, 326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Teixeira da Silva, J.A.; Tsigaris, P. What value do whitelists and blacklists have in academia? J. Acad. Librariansh. 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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- Teixeira da Silva, J.A. Caution with the continued use of Jeffrey Beall’s “predatory” open access publishing lists. AME Med. J. 2017, 2, 97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teixeira da Silva, J.A. Jeffrey Beall’s “predatory” lists must not be used: They are biased, flawed, opaque and inaccurate. Bibliothecae.it 2017, 6, 425–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teixeira da Silva, J.A. The illicit and illegitimate continued use of Jeffrey Beall’s “predatory” open access black lists. J. Radic. Librariansh. 2018, 4, 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Cobey, K.D.; Grudniewicz, A.; Lalu, M.M.; Rice, D.B.; Raffoul, H.; Moher, D. Knowledge and motivations of researchers publishing in presumed predatory journals: A survey. BMJ Open 2019, 9, e026516. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Crawford, W. ‘Trust Me’: The Other Problem with 87% of Beall’s Lists. January 2016. Available online: http://walt.lishost.org/2016/01/trust-me-the-other-problem-with-87-of-bealls-lists/ (accessed on 11 April 2019).
- Pyne, D. The rewards of predatory publishing at a small business school. J. Sch. Publ. 2017, 48, 137–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teixeira da Silva, J.A. The ethical and academic implications of the Jeffrey Beall (www.scholarlyoa.com) blog shutdown. Sci. Eng. Ethics 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tsigaris, P. Letter to the editors. J. Sch. Publ. 2019, 50, 139–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Without warning, Beall shut his blog down on 15 January 2017.
The 1st edition was published on 4 August 2012: https://scholarlyoa.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/criteria-2012.pdf. The 2nd edition was published on 1 December 2012: https://scholarlyoa.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/criteria-2012-2.pdf. The 3rd edition was published on 1 January 2015: http://beallslist.weebly.com/uploads/3/0/9/5/30958339/criteria-2015.pdf. We do not know which of the above criteria, if any, Pyne used to classify the journals in his Journal of Scholarly Publishing JSP paper as “predatory”. We suspect that he blindly, i.e., without questioning the validity of the entries, followed Beall’s lists for classification.
MDPI has expressed serious concerns with Beall’s list: “We wish to conclude by expressing that Mr. Beall’s blacklist in its current form is unnecessary and unreliable.” “Mr. Beall operates as an individual person and does not provide sufficient evidence for his claims, does not attempt to verify his statements for accuracy, nor operate a methodological approach to his appraisals. Mr. Beall also denies the right to defense to those that he attacks. Mr. Beall’s judgments are therefore to be considered as unreliable, unmethodical and his personal opinions.” See: https://www.mdpi.com/about/announcements/534.
Crawford did not use the term “predatory” once in his critique of Beall’s blacklists and exclusively used the categories “no”, “weak”, “maybe” and “strong” to identify if Beall had provided clear criteria for those entries (journal or publishers).
“In seven cases out of eight (on the 2016 lists), Beall provides no case whatsoever in his blog: the journal or publisher is in the lists Just Because. (Or, in some but not most cases, Beall provided a case on his earlier blog but failed to copy those posts.) Seven cases out of eight: 87.5%. 1604 journals and publishers of the 1834 (excluding duplicates) on the 2016 versions have no more than an unstated “trust me” as the reason for avoiding them. I believe that’s inexcusable, and makes the strongest possible case that nobody should treat Beall’s lists as being significant. (It also, of course, means that research based on the assumption that the lists are meaningful is fatally flawed.)” Italics added by the authors for emphasis.
https://twitter.com/jeffrey_beall?lang=en (“I am retired”).
Note these are direct quotes from the JSP paper, i.e., Pyne’s own words. Italics and […] were added by the authors for emphasis and brevity, respectively.
There is only one place in the JSP manuscript where Pyne mentioned the possibility of Beall’s list being inaccurate: “Any list such as Beall’s will have both type I errors (i.e., wrongly included journals)” (p. 143), but softened this type of error by adding the possibility of “type II errors (journals being wrongly excluded)” (p. 143).
For example, the string of words “predatory publication” in Table 4 appears seven times. A word search of “predatory publication” occurs in 46 places while a search for the word “Beall” appears 42 times. The words “potential, possible or probable predatory” has not been used once, individually or as a string of words. Why did Pyne not use the terms “Beall’s lists” or “Beall’s blacklists” or the “lists”, but instead opt to use the definitive term “predatory”?
See, as an example: “Recommendation: Do not do business with the above publishers, including submitting article manuscripts, serving on editorial boards, buying advertising, etc. There are numerous traditional, legitimate journals that will publish your quality work for free, including many legitimate, open-access publishers.” http://www.ep.liu.se/authorinf/pdf/List_of_Predatory_Open-Access_Publishers_2012.pdf (Beall, J. 2012. Beall’s List of Predatory, Open-Access Publishers).
Throughout this paper, we have add inverted commas for the term “predatory” because this term is used widely by so many academics and has come to represent a vast range of journals and publishers with varying academic quality. This paper does not propose to offer a review on the topic of “predatory publishing”, as several papers on this literature are polemic and need to be formally challenged and reevaluated, because some of the claims that they have made may in fact be potentially inaccurate. For all effective purposes, we focus exclusively on the Pyne (2017) JSP paper .
The current policy at the small business school currently exempts research that uses publicly available data from ethics approval, as occurred for the Pyne (2017) JSP paper .
http://www.abdc.edu.au/pages/2016-review.html; it is unclear if Pyne used this or the 2013 list.
In all fairness, this also indicates that the ABDC whitelist was, to some extent, flawed, or imperfectly curated.
We did not include Inderscience and World Scientific Publishing. We do not know if Pyne confused Inderscience, which is not on Beall’s POAP list, with Interscience, which is on Beall’s POAP list as well as World Scientific Publishing, which is not on Beall’s POAP list, with World Science Publishing, which is on Beall’s POAP list.
Supplementary Table 1 shows the name and URL of these journals/publishers.
We have not listed papers published by Inderscience and World Scientific Publishing.
Beall’s list was strictly limited to OA journals, although there were occasional exceptions, such as Nova Science Publications (NY, USA). Did Pyne use any hybrid or non-OA journals or publishers for his classification? This issue is not clear in his paper. For example, Pyne lists the International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE). However, IABE is not an OA publisher, at least not now. So, the issue of congruency between Beall’s lists and Pyne’s lists, and if both focused exclusively on OA journals and publishers, remains unclear.
Cabell’s whitelist and blacklist can be accessed at: http://www.cabells.com/ (membership required).
For example, see FAQ in one of the journals: http://ejbr-journal.org/domains/EJBR-JOURNAL/Default.aspx.
Can be accessed at Crawford’s website or available upon request.
The list was last downloaded on May 16, 2018: http://www.abdc.edu.au/pages/2016-review.html.
The three blacklisted journals by Cabell’s are The Asian Social Science and the International Journal of Business and Management by the Canadian Center of Science and Technology which Crawford labels as “weak” and the Indian Journal of Economics and Business by Serials Publications which Crawford labels as “trust me”. Cabell’s blacklist was last verified on 16 May 2018.
Supplementary Table 1 shows the name and URL of these journals/publishers.
We remind readers that Crawford’s grayOA list was based on evidence from Beall’s blacklists that was then used to support their inclusion into his list where Crawford found that over 10,000 journals from a total of about 18,000 were not operational.
Cabell indicated to the first author by email on 29 December 2017 that they had added one more journal to their blacklist. From: Kathleen Berryman Subject: RE: Request for an update on journals under review. “There has been only one change: International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management – blacklist.” To date (11 April 2019) there are 544 publishers under review by Cabell. Almost all publishers under review can be found in Beall’s blacklist of 1163 publishers. Hence, IABE has been under review for almost a year and a half. Furthermore, it would be of interest in the future to assess what classification was done to the 619 publishers that are not under review by Cabell. Were most of the 619 publishers not operational with no content as Crawford found when constructing the GrayOA list from Beall’s list?
Supplementary Table 1shows the name and URL of these journals/publishers.
Most journals were in the A category. B3 was for journals with no articles later than 2013, B4 later than 2014, B5 no 2016 articles, BC merged, BF fewer than three 2016 articles, BR primarily conference proceedings, E empty, UA unknown or hidden APC, XH hybrid, XM malware, XN not OA, Xo opaque and too difficult to count, and XU for unworkable.
|A*||A||B||C||Ranked + Beall’s||Beall’s||Unclassified||Total|
|Journal||Publisher||# of Articles||Crawford||ABDC 2013||ABDC 2016||EconLit||Open Access||Starting Date of Inclusion in Whitelist|
|Again in||Currently Whitelisted||Blacklisted|
|Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal||Allied Academies||1||Trust me||C||Y||Y||January 1997||August 2015||March–October 2016||No||No|
|Academy of Marketing Studies Journal||Allied Academies||1||Trust me||C||Y||Y||January 1997||August 2015||March–October 2016||No||No|
|Asian Social Science||Canadian Center of Science and Education||1||Weak||C||Y||June 2010||April 2015||No||Yes|
|Indian Journal of Economics and Business||Serials Publications||2||Trust me||C||Y||No||January 2004||June 2015||No||Yes|
|International Journal of Business and Management||Canadian Center of Science and Education||3||Weak||C||Y||June 2010||April 2015||No||Yes|
|The International Journal of Management||IJM||1||Trust me||C||Y||Y||January 1998||April 2013||No||Under review|
|Journal of Academy of Business and Economics||IABE||1||Trust me||C||Y||Hybrid||January 2004||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Journal of Applied Business and Economics||North American Business Press||1||Trust me||C||Y||No||January 2006||Yes||No|
|Journal of Business and Economics Research||Clute Institute||3||Trust me||C||Y||Y||January 2010||April 2014||No||No|
|The Journal of Global Business Management||JGBM||1||Strong||C||Y||January 2010||August 2016||No||Under review|
|Journal of International Business and Economics||IABE||4||Trust me||C||Y||Hybrid||January 2004||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Journal of International Finance and Economics||IABE||3||Trust me||C||Y||Y||Hybrid||January 2006||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Journal of International Financial Studies||IABE||2||Trust me||C||Y||Hybrid||No||Under review|
|The Journal of International Management Studies||JIMS||3||Strong||C||Y||January 2010||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Review of Business Research||IABE||1||Trust me||C||Y||Hybrid||January 2004||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Theoretical Economics Letters||SCIRP (Scientific Research Publishing)||1||Maybe||B||Y||Y||Y||August 2012||April 2014||No||Under review|
|Journal||Publisher||# of Articles||Crawford on Beall’s||Open Access||Starting Date of Inclusion in Whitelist|
|Date Removed from Whitelist|
|Again Included in Whitelist|
|Academy of Strategic Management Journal||Allied Academies||1||Trust me||Y||January 1997||August 2015||March 2016–October 2016||No||No|
|African Journal of Business Management||Academic Journals||1||Trust me||Y||No||Yes|
|Business Studies Journal||Allied Academies||1||Trust me||Y||January 1997||August 2015||March 2016–October 2016||No||No|
|International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management||Academic Research Publishers||1||Trust me||Y||April 2012||July 2015||No||Yes|
|International Business and Economics Research Journal||Clute Institute||2||Trust me||Y||January 2004||April 2014||No||No|
|International Journal of Applied Engineering Research||Research India Publications||1||Strong||Y||No||Under review|
|International Journal of Business Research and Management||CSC Journals||2||Trust me||Y||No||Under review|
|International Review of Business Research Papers||Zant World Press||2||Trust me||N||Under review|
|Journal of Applied Business Research||Clute Institute||1||Trust me||Y||January 1994||April 2014||No||No|
|Journal of Business and Economics||Academic Star Publishing Co.||1||Trust me||Y||No||Yes|
|Journal of International Business Research||Allied Academies||1||Trust me||Y||January 1997||August 2015||March 2016–October 2016||No||No|
|Journal of Sustainable Development||Canadian Center of Science and Education||1||Weak||Y||No||Yes|
|OIDA International Journal on Sustainable Development||Zzind||1||Strong||Y||No||Under review|
|Open Journal of Social Sciences||SCIRP (Scientific Research Publishing)||1||Maybe||Y||No||Under review|
|The Open Urban Studies Journal||Bentham Open||1||Weak||Y||No||No|
|The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance||Science Alert||1||Trust me||Y||No||Under Review|
|World Review of Business Research||World Business Institute||1||Trust me||Y||November 2011||April 2015||No||No|
|Educational Journals||Publisher||# of Articles||Crawford||Starting Date of Inclusion in Whitelist|
|Date Removed from Whitelist|
|Again Included in Whitelist|
|Currently Whitelisted||Blacklisted||Open Access|
|American Journal of Business Education||Clute Institute||4||Trust me||January 2010||April 2014||No||No||Y|
|Journal of Instructional Pedagogies||Academic and Business Research institute||1||Weak||November 2011||Yes||No||Y|
|Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research||Allied Academies||3||Trust me||January 1997||August 2015||March 2016–October 2016||No||No||Y|
|International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management||1||Academic Research Publishers||XN|
|International Journal of Business and Management||1||Canadian Center of Science and Education||A|
|Journal of International Management Studies||3||JIMS||A|
|Theoretical Economics Letters||1||Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP)||A|
|OIDA International Journal on Sustainable Development||1||zzind||A|
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