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Dysregulated Phosphate Metabolism, Periodontal Disease, and Cancer: Possible Global Health Implications

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010018
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health to Global Health: Impact of Nutrition)
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Abstract

An association between periodontal disease and cancer has been established in recent studies, but no common etiology has been identified in the hopes of reducing the global burden of these non-communicable diseases. This perspective article hypothesizes that the determinant mediating the association of periodontal disease with cancer is dysregulated phosphate metabolism. Phosphate, an essential dietary micronutrient, is dysregulated in chronic kidney disease, and both cancer and periodontal disease are associated with chronic kidney disease. Reviewed evidence includes the association between phosphate toxicity and cancer development, and the association between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder includes conditions such as ectopic calcification and bone resorption, which may be indirectly related to periodontal disease. Dental calculus in periodontal disease contains calcium phosphate crystals that are deposited from excess calcium and phosphate in saliva. Alveolar bone resorption may be linked systemically to release of parathyroid hormone in response to hypocalcemia induced by hyperphosphatemia. More research is needed to examine the role of dysregulated phosphate metabolism in periodontal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate toxicity; periodontal disease; cancer; tumorigenesis; chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder; dental calculus; resorption; RNA; global health; ectopic calcification phosphate toxicity; periodontal disease; cancer; tumorigenesis; chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder; dental calculus; resorption; RNA; global health; ectopic calcification
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Brown, R.B. Dysregulated Phosphate Metabolism, Periodontal Disease, and Cancer: Possible Global Health Implications. Dent. J. 2019, 7, 18.

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