Next Article in Journal
Effectiveness of Oral Hygiene Instructions Given in Computer-Assisted Format versus a Self-Care Instructor
Previous Article in Journal
Accuracy of Digitally Fabricated Wax Denture Bases and Conventional Completed Complete Dentures
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Dent. J. 2018, 6(1), 1;

Autoimmune Diseases and Oral Health: 30-Year Follow-Up of a Swedish Cohort

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, BOX 4064, 14104 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [217 KB, uploaded 22 December 2017]


Oral infections up-regulate a number of systemic inflammatory reactions that, in turn, play a role in the development of systemic diseases. We investigated the association between oral health and autoimmune diseases in a cohort of Swedish adults. Hypothesis was that poor oral health associates with incidence of autoimmune diseases. Overall 1676 subjects aged 30–40 years old from Stockholm County (Sweden) participated in this study in 1985. Subjects were randomly selected from the registry file of Stockholm region and were followed-up for 30 years. Their hospital and open health care admissions (World Health Organization ICD 9 and 10 codes) were recorded from the Swedish national health registers. The association between the diagnosed autoimmune disease and the oral health variables were statistically analyzed. In all, 50 patients with autoimmune diagnoses were detected from the data. Plaque index was significantly higher in the autoimmune disease group (≥median 35 (70%) vs. ˂median 872 (54%), p = 0.030). No statistical difference was found in gingival index, calculus index, missing teeth, periodontal pockets, smoking or snuff use between patients with and without autoimmune disease. Our study hypothesis was partly confirmed. The result showed that subjects with a higher plaque index, marker of poor oral hygiene, were more likely to develop autoimmune diseases in 30 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmune disease; oral health; association; plaque index; follow-up study autoimmune disease; oral health; association; plaque index; follow-up study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Julkunen, A.; Heikkinen, A.M.; Söder, B.; Söder, P.-Ö.; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Meurman, J.H. Autoimmune Diseases and Oral Health: 30-Year Follow-Up of a Swedish Cohort. Dent. J. 2018, 6, 1.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Dent. J. EISSN 2304-6767 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top