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Review

Solvothermal Synthesis Routes to Substituted Cerium Dioxide Materials

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Duncan H. Gregory
Inorganics 2021, 9(6), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics9060040
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cornerstones in Contemporary Inorganic Chemistry)
We review the solution-based synthesis routes to cerium oxide materials where one or more elements are included in place of a proportion of the cerium, i.e., substitution of cerium is performed. The focus is on the solvothermal method, where reagents are heated above the boiling point of the solvent to induce crystallisation directly from the solution. This yields unusual compositions with crystal morphology often on the nanoscale. Chemical elements from all parts of the periodic table are considered, from transition metals to main group elements and the rare earths, including isovalent and aliovalent cations, and surveyed using the literature published in the past ten years. We illustrate the versatility of this synthesis method to allow the formation of functional materials with applications in contemporary applications such as heterogeneous catalysis, electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells, photocatalysis, luminescence and biomedicine. We pick out emerging trends towards control of crystal habit by use of non-aqueous solvents and solution additives and identify challenges still remaining, including in detailed structural characterisation, the understanding of crystallisation mechanisms and the scale-up of synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceria; hydrothermal; catalysis; nanomaterials; crystallisation ceria; hydrothermal; catalysis; nanomaterials; crystallisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Annis, J.W.; Fisher, J.M.; Thompsett, D.; Walton, R.I. Solvothermal Synthesis Routes to Substituted Cerium Dioxide Materials. Inorganics 2021, 9, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics9060040

AMA Style

Annis JW, Fisher JM, Thompsett D, Walton RI. Solvothermal Synthesis Routes to Substituted Cerium Dioxide Materials. Inorganics. 2021; 9(6):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics9060040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Annis, James W., Janet M. Fisher, David Thompsett, and Richard I. Walton. 2021. "Solvothermal Synthesis Routes to Substituted Cerium Dioxide Materials" Inorganics 9, no. 6: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics9060040

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