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Bulky-Yet-Flexible Carbene Ligands and Their Use in Palladium Cross-Coupling

Centre for Sustainable Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium.
Inorganics 2019, 7(6), 78;
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palladium Catalysts: From Design to Applications)
PDF [11258 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]


In recent years, several classes of new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands were developed around the concept of “flexible steric bulk”. The steric hindrance of these ligands brings stability to the active species, while ligand flexibility still allows for the approach of the substrate. In this review, the synthesis of several types of new classes, such as IBiox, cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (CAAC), ITent, and IPr* are discussed, as well as how they move the state-of-the-art in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling forward. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-heterocyclic carbenes; flexible sterics; palladium; cross-coupling N-heterocyclic carbenes; flexible sterics; palladium; cross-coupling

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Vanden Broeck, S.M.P.; Nahra, F.; Cazin, C.S.J. Bulky-Yet-Flexible Carbene Ligands and Their Use in Palladium Cross-Coupling. Inorganics 2019, 7, 78.

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