Next Article in Journal
Supercritical Fluid Synthesis of LiCoPO4 Nanoparticles and Their Application to Lithium Ion Battery
Next Article in Special Issue
From Stable ZnO and GaN Clusters to Novel Double Bubbles and Frameworks
Previous Article in Journal
Direct Energy Supply to the Reaction Mixture during Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal and Combustion Synthesis of Inorganic Materials
Previous Article in Special Issue
Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Inorganics 2014, 2(2), 211-232;

IF-WS2/Nanostructured Carbon Hybrids Generation and Their Characterization

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. Naval Postgraduate School 700 Dyer Rd. Watkins Hall. Monterey, CA 9394, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7686 KB, uploaded 9 May 2014]   |  


With the aim to develop a new generation of materials that combine either the known energy absorbing properties of carbon nanofibers (CNF), or the carbon-carbon bond strength of graphene sheets (G), with the shock resistance properties reported for Inorganic Fullerene type WS2 structures (IF-WS2), hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 were generated, characterized and tested. Experimentation revealed that in situ growth of carbon nanostructures with inorganic fullerene tungsten disulfide particulates had to be performed from particular precursors and fabrication conditions to avoid undesirable byproducts that hinder fiber growth or deter graphene generation. The novel protocols that allowed us to integrate the IF-WS2 with the carbon nanostructures, producing dispersions at the nanoscale, are reported. Resulting hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 products were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The thermal stability of samples in air was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 hybrids were introduced into epoxy matrices, and the mechanical properties of the resulting composites were analyzed using nanoindentation. Epoxy composite samples showed drastic improvements in the Young’s modulus and hardness values by the use of only 1% hybrid weight loadings. The carbon nanofiber inclusions seem to have a much greater impact on the mechanical properties of the composite than the graphene based counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: IF-WS2; carbon nanostructures; WS2 composites; CNF/IF-WS2; graphene/IF-WS2 IF-WS2; carbon nanostructures; WS2 composites; CNF/IF-WS2; graphene/IF-WS2

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Luhrs, C.C.; Moberg, M.; Maxson, A.; Brewer, L.; Menon, S. IF-WS2/Nanostructured Carbon Hybrids Generation and Their Characterization. Inorganics 2014, 2, 211-232.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Inorganics EISSN 2304-6740 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top