# External Control of Dissipative Coupling in a Heterogeneously Integrated Photonic Crystal—SOI Waveguide Optomechanical System

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Device Fabrication

#### 2.2. Photonic Crystal Design

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. System Description

#### 3.2. QDs Response to a Non-Resonant Optical Pump

#### 3.3. Optomechanical Transduction of Non-Resonant Pump

#### 3.4. Tailored Optomechanical Couplings

## 4. Discussion and Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CW | continuous wave |

EBL | electron beam lithography |

FDTD | finite difference in time domain |

FWHM | full width at half maximum |

InAs(P) | indium arsenide phosphide |

InGaAs | indium gallium arsenide |

InP | indium phosphide |

PhC | photonic crystal |

$\mathsf{\mu}$PL | micro-photoluminescence |

Si | silicon |

${\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}$ | silicon dioxide |

QD | quantum dot |

SOI | silicon-on-insulator |

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) SEM image of the fabricated device; (

**b**) Schematic of the membrane cross-section composition (not to scale); (

**c**) TEM image of a single QD; (

**d**) $\mathsf{\mu}$PL spectra of the QD layer from unpatterned membrane (dark blue) and from the region embedding an ${\mathrm{L}}_{3}$ PhC cavity (violet).

**Figure 2.**(

**a**) Schematic of the experimental set-up for the characterization of optical/optomechanical transduction of non-resonant pump (${\lambda}_{\mathrm{pump}}=800$ nm) to resonant probe (${\lambda}_{\mathrm{probe}}\approx 1.56$ $\mathsf{\mu}$m); (

**b**) Emission properties of the QDs, filtered by the ${\mathrm{L}}_{3}$ cavity (loaded ${\lambda}_{\mathrm{c}}=1564.5$ nm): fitted intensity I, wavelength ${\lambda}_{0}$ and linewidth κ of the collected emission are plotted versus non-resonant pump power. Inset: zoom-in of ${\lambda}_{0}$ power dependence.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Spectra of the probe light, as measured by the Electric spectrum analyser (ESA), coupled to the PhC cavity with a layer of QDs in the middle, pumped non-resonantly at normal incidence. The pump laser power is modulated at ${\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\mathrm{mod}}/2\mathsf{\pi}$. Shown curves are measured at different laser–cavity detunings $\mathrm{\Delta}={\lambda}_{\mathrm{probe}}-{\lambda}_{0}$. The Lorentzian peak at ${\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\mathrm{m}}/2\mathsf{\pi}$ corresponds to the fundamental flexural mode of the membrane (membrane size: $8.5\times 4.8\times 0.26$ $\mathsf{\mu}$m). Inset: schematic describing the origin of the two detected peaks; (

**b**) (bottom) Mechanical ${\mathrm{M}}_{1}$ mode amplitude dependence on probe laser detuning, acquired for forward (blue- to red-detuned) and backward (red- to blue-detuned) scanning directions. (top) Waveguide transmission spectra for both probe sweep directions. Measurements in (

**b**) were performed at the same probe laser power (corresponding to the intracavity power ${P}_{\mathrm{c}}\approx 100$ $\mathsf{\mu}$W) and pump laser power ${P}_{\mathrm{pump}}=90$ $\mathsf{\mu}$W; at room temperature ${T}_{\mathrm{b}}=294$ K and at low pressure $p<{10}^{-4}$ mbar.

**Figure 4.**(

**a**–

**c**) Power spectral densities at mechanical resonance (circles: experimental data; solid lines: fit to model [6]) ${S}_{\mathrm{P}}({\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\mathrm{m}},\mathrm{\Delta}/\kappa )$ and fitted relative contributions of coupling dispersive (${g}_{\omega}$) and dissipative (intrinsic ${g}_{\kappa ,\mathrm{i}}$ and external ${g}_{\kappa ,\mathrm{e}}$) coupling strengths for different powers of non-resonant pump; (

**d**) Experimental evolution of the optomechanical coupling coefficients with the power of the external non-resonant pump (markers—data from (

**a**–

**c**), solid lines—linear fits).

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Tsvirkun, V.; Surrente, A.; Raineri, F.; Beaudoin, G.; Raj, R.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Braive, R.
External Control of Dissipative Coupling in a Heterogeneously Integrated Photonic Crystal—SOI Waveguide Optomechanical System. *Photonics* **2016**, *3*, 52.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3040052

**AMA Style**

Tsvirkun V, Surrente A, Raineri F, Beaudoin G, Raj R, Sagnes I, Robert-Philip I, Braive R.
External Control of Dissipative Coupling in a Heterogeneously Integrated Photonic Crystal—SOI Waveguide Optomechanical System. *Photonics*. 2016; 3(4):52.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3040052

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Tsvirkun, Viktor, Alessandro Surrente, Fabrice Raineri, Grégoire Beaudoin, Rama Raj, Isabelle Sagnes, Isabelle Robert-Philip, and Rémy Braive.
2016. "External Control of Dissipative Coupling in a Heterogeneously Integrated Photonic Crystal—SOI Waveguide Optomechanical System" *Photonics* 3, no. 4: 52.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3040052