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Limnol. Rev., Volume 24, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 2 articles

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14 pages, 1985 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Efficiency of a Finned Corrugation Basin in Inclined Basin-Type Solar Stills in Regulating the Water Supply of the CaspiCement Plant
by Ivan Kirvel, Ainur Zhidebayeva, Lyailim Taizhanova, Ainazhan Aitimova, Samal Syrlybekkyzy, Akmaral Serikbayeva, Kamshat Jumasheva and Symbat Koibakova
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(2), 150-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24020008 - 23 May 2024
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Abstract
The need for fresh water production is especially high in hot dry climates without any sources of drinking water but with an abundance of sea and underground water. The solution is water desalination with efficient solar-powered water treatment plants. This article proposes a [...] Read more.
The need for fresh water production is especially high in hot dry climates without any sources of drinking water but with an abundance of sea and underground water. The solution is water desalination with efficient solar-powered water treatment plants. This article proposes a new modification of a basin made of thin-finned corrugation with 43°-angle-inclined sides, equal to the region’s latitude, which provide strong heating. The experiments were carried out in the hot climate of Aktau city (43°49′ N, 51°1′ E). The study’s outcomes can be useful for regions with drinking water scarcity. To define the level of the corrugated basin’s efficiency, two versions (SS-1, SS-2) of experiments were carried out on a two-slope distiller, complete with two basins. In SS-1, basin-2 was heated by air. By 15:00, basin-2 had heated up to 98.5 °C, and the acrylic cover above had heated up to 101.6 °C, which led to its “deformation”. By 12.00 p.m., the temperature differentials between the glass (40.7 °C), the air–water mixture (57.3 °C), and basin-1 (61.1 °C) were 16.6 °C and 20.4 °C. This resulted from the wind speed increasing up to 5.9 m/s. The large temperature differential contributed to the condensate yield increasing from 0.128 kg at 11 o’clock to 0.293 kg at 12 o’clock. The throughput capability of basin-1 per day was equal to 2.094 kg. Basin-2’s input to the performance in SS-1 was only the thermal effect. In SS-2, basin-2 was used as a regular basin. The plexiglass temperature was lower than the temperatures of the water and basin-2. The temperature differential between the glass and air–water mixture at 10:00 a.m. was 20 °C; at 12:00 p.m. it was 30.6 °C; and a value of 30.6 °C was recorded at 3:00 p.m. The thermal differential between the glass and the air-water mixture provided the highest condensate yield of 1.114 kg at 3.00 p.m. The condensate yield from the basins in SS-2 was 8.72 kg, including 3.5 kg from basin-1, which is 1.7 times more than from basin-1 in SS-1. The experimental results are consistent with the equations coming from the models of Clark J.A. and Dunkle R.V. Tcondensation ≠ Tevaporation is an irreversible process. When the basins are heated, the heat is consumed; when the glass cools down, the heat is given off. Heat losses are minimized due to the “gap” and positive energy is provided. The still’s throughput capability can be made larger by increasing the basin’s area, reducing the water layer thickness, and regulating the flowrate of the desalinated water. Full article
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24 pages, 1463 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Solutions: Reviewing the Future of Textile Dye Contaminant Removal with Emerging Biological Treatments
by Kusumlata, Balram Ambade, Ashish Kumar and Sneha Gautam
Limnol. Rev. 2024, 24(2), 126-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/limnolrev24020007 - 3 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Synthetic dyes, exceeding 100,000 types on the market and produced at a global scale of over 700,000 tons annually, are extensively used in the textile industry. This industry, a leading contributor to water contamination, relies on dyes like reactive, azo, anthraquinone, and triphenylmethane, [...] Read more.
Synthetic dyes, exceeding 100,000 types on the market and produced at a global scale of over 700,000 tons annually, are extensively used in the textile industry. This industry, a leading contributor to water contamination, relies on dyes like reactive, azo, anthraquinone, and triphenylmethane, resulting in substantial water usage and significant effluent generation. A significant modern challenge is the pollution caused by dye-mixed wastewater, releasing hazardous chemicals into water bodies and posing threats to ecosystems, plants, and human health. Traditionally, physicochemical techniques have addressed textile dye-containing wastewater, but their drawbacks, including cost, inefficiency, and potential secondary pollution, have steered attention towards biological alternatives. Utilizing microorganisms and enzymes, these biological methods, such as microbial cell enzyme immobilization, the biofilm technique, bioreactors, biofuel/bioelectricity production, and genetic engineering, have emerged as promising, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly solutions for efficient dye removal from wastewater. This review paper specifically highlights advanced biological techniques and emphasizes their efficacy in addressing the challenges posed by synthetic textile dyes. Through a systematic review of recent research papers, published results, and observations, this review paper provides insights into emerging biological treatment strategies for effectively removing synthetic textile dyes and contaminants from wastewater. Full article
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