Safety Compliance in a Sample of Italian Mechanical Companies: The Role of Knowledge and Safety Climate
The Antecedents of Safety Compliance
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Participants and Training Intervention
- Knowledge: An adapted version of the scale proposed by Ricci et al.  composed of 20 items characterized by different formats: two items concerning the recognition of safe behaviours presented as a photographic stimulus (e.g., safety signage), with three alternatives and only one correct answer; 15 items requiring the production—with paper and pencil—of the correct answers to questions on the role of prevention and the safety procedures to apply (e.g., “What is the safest behaviour to use in the event of an earthquake tremor?”); three items requiring the recognition of the correct answer, among four alternatives, on the obligations and sanctions that the law imposes on workers (e.g., “Breaking the obligation to correctly use the working equipment and the means of transport, as well as the safety equipment, will be punished with:”).
- Attitudes towards safe practices: A self-evaluation questionnaire consisting of three items (e.g., “People get hurt because they don’t apply the procedures”), adapted from Ricci et al. , with responses given on a 10-point Likert-type scale (from 1 “completely disagree” to 10 “completely agree”). Reliability value result (Cronbach alpha coefficient): 0.64 .
- Safety climate: The Italian version, in reduced form, of the NOSACQ-50 , with seven verbal items rated on a 7-point Likert scale (from 1 “completely disagree” to 7 “completely agree”). The items measured the workers’ perception of the actions taken by the management (e.g., “the management involves the workers in decisions concerning safety”) and by their colleagues (e.g., “the workers of this company help one another to work safely”). Reliability value result (Cronbach alpha coefficient): 0.83 .
- Behaviours: An original observation checklist containing four parameters (personal protective equipment, manual handling of loads, posture at work, and pace of work). For each parameter, four indicators were identified: 1 = very good; 2 = quite good; 3 = relatively wrong; and 4 = completely wrong. The survey was completed by personnel with experience in observation tasks, who were trained by the lead researcher before proceeding with the scheduled activities.
2.4. Data Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Model: Predictor(s)||df||Loglikelihood||AICc||AICc Delta||Weight|
|M12: knowledge plus management safety climate||4||−63.289||135.0||0.00||0.524|
|M13: knowledge interacting with management safety climate||5||−65.928||138.1||3.12||0.110|
|M10: knowledge plus colleague safety climate||4||−65.327||139.0||4.08||0.068|
|M11: knowledge interacting with colleague safety climate||5||−65.317||141.2||6.26||0.023|
|M14: knowledge plus attitudes plus colleague safety climate plus management safety climate||8||−62.645||142.7||7.78||0.011|
|M8: knowledge plus attitudes||6||−65.007||142.8||7.88||0.010|
|M9: knowledge interacting with attitudes||17||−59.802||160.4||25.44||0.000|
|M7: management safety climate||3||−78.645||163.5||28.56||0.000|
|M6: colleague safety climate||3||−80.211||166.7||31.69||0.000|
|M2: attitude, item 1||3||−80.671||167.6||32.61||0.000|
|M4: attitude, item 3||3||−80.919||168.1||33.10||0.000|
|M3: attitude, item 2||3||−81.192||168.6||33.65||0.000|
|M5: attitudes: item 1 + item 2 + item 3||5||−80.064||170.7||35.75||0.000|
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Ricci, F.; Panari, C.; Pelosi, A. Safety Compliance in a Sample of Italian Mechanical Companies: The Role of Knowledge and Safety Climate. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12, 281-294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12030020
Ricci F, Panari C, Pelosi A. Safety Compliance in a Sample of Italian Mechanical Companies: The Role of Knowledge and Safety Climate. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 2022; 12(3):281-294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12030020Chicago/Turabian Style
Ricci, Federico, Chiara Panari, and Annalisa Pelosi. 2022. "Safety Compliance in a Sample of Italian Mechanical Companies: The Role of Knowledge and Safety Climate" European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 12, no. 3: 281-294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12030020