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Article

Exploration of the Spanish Version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire: A Comparative Study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese Culture

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Department of Psychology, School of Biomedical Sciences, European University of Madrid, Spain. Calle Tajo S/N. (Urb. El Bosque), Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
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Social and Affective Neuroscience Lab, Psychology Program-SSS, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639818, Singapore
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Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 636921, Singapore
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Affiliative Behaviour and Physiology Lab, Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento, 38068 Rovereto, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(1), 113-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11010010
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
Nowadays, there are several human attachment measures, most in the form of questionnaires that assess adult attachment styles. This study investigates the use of Feeney, Noller, Hanrahan, Sperling and Berman’s five-factors Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, 1994), based on Bartholomew’s four-factors model (1991), and Hazan and Shaver’s three-factors model (1987). Nevertheless, no robust study has explored the ASQ questionnaire in Spanish compared to other cultures, such as Italian and Japanese. Therefore, the linguistic translation of the Spanish version of the ASQ was performed, based on the back-translation methodology. The results indicate that 5-factors ASQ Spanish version explains 43.67% of the variance, similar to the original English-Australian ASQ version. The Italian and Japanese versions explain 49.37% and 52.27% of the variance, respectively. No age correlation for any ASQ factors in the Japanese sample was found; meanwhile, the Spanish and Italian cultures showed a positive correlation with age and “Confidence” and negative correlation with age and “Relationships as Secondary” ASQ factors. Some transcultural differences and possible research approaches are addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: attachment; ASQ Spanish; intercultural research attachment; ASQ Spanish; intercultural research
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-de-la-Nieta, O.; Koeneke Hoenicka, M.A.; Martinez-Rubio, J.L.; Shinohara, K.; Esposito, G.; Iandolo, G. Exploration of the Spanish Version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire: A Comparative Study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese Culture. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11, 113-128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11010010

AMA Style

López-de-la-Nieta O, Koeneke Hoenicka MA, Martinez-Rubio JL, Shinohara K, Esposito G, Iandolo G. Exploration of the Spanish Version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire: A Comparative Study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese Culture. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 2021; 11(1):113-128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-de-la-Nieta, Oscar, Mᵃ Alejandra Koeneke Hoenicka, José Luis Martinez-Rubio, Kazuyuki Shinohara, Gianluca Esposito, and Giuseppe Iandolo. 2021. "Exploration of the Spanish Version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire: A Comparative Study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese Culture" European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 11, no. 1: 113-128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11010010

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