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Article

A Eulerian Multi-Fluid Model for High-Speed Evaporating Sprays

1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, 106123 Perugia, Italy
3
Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kristian Etienne Einarsrud
Processes 2021, 9(6), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060941
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD))
Advancements in internal combustion technology, such as efficiency improvements and the usage of new complex fuels, are often coupled with developments of suitable numerical tools for predicting the complex dynamic behavior of sprays. Therefore, this work presents a Eulerian multi-fluid model specialized for the dynamic behavior of dense evaporating liquid fuel sprays. The introduced model was implemented within the open-source OpenFOAM library, which is constantly gaining popularity in both industrial and academic settings. Therefore, it represents an ideal framework for such development. The presented model employs the classes method and advanced interfacial momentum transfer models. The droplet breakup is considered using the enhanced WAVE breakup model, where the mass taken from the parent droplets is distributed among child classes using a triangular distribution. Furthermore, the complex thermal behavior within the moving droplets is considered using a parabolic temperature profile and an effective thermal conductivity approach. This work includes an uncertainty estimation analysis (for both spatial and temporal resolutions) for the developed solver. Furthermore, the solver was validated against two ECN Spray A conditions (evaporating and non-evaporating). Overall, the presented results show the capability of the implemented model to successfully predict the complex dynamic behavior of dense liquid sprays for the selected operating conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Euler multi-fluid; classes method; liquid spray; evaporation; WAVE breakup; OpenFOAM; CFD; validation; temperature profile Euler multi-fluid; classes method; liquid spray; evaporation; WAVE breakup; OpenFOAM; CFD; validation; temperature profile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keser, R.; Battistoni, M.; Im, H.G.; Jasak, H. A Eulerian Multi-Fluid Model for High-Speed Evaporating Sprays. Processes 2021, 9, 941. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060941

AMA Style

Keser R, Battistoni M, Im HG, Jasak H. A Eulerian Multi-Fluid Model for High-Speed Evaporating Sprays. Processes. 2021; 9(6):941. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060941

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keser, Robert, Michele Battistoni, Hong G. Im, and Hrvoje Jasak. 2021. "A Eulerian Multi-Fluid Model for High-Speed Evaporating Sprays" Processes 9, no. 6: 941. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060941

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