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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Multi-Enzyme Systems in Flow Chemistry

Faculty of Engineering, Universidade Lusófona, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
DREAMS, Universidade Lusófona, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
iBB—Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gurutze Arzamendi
Processes 2021, 9(2), 225;
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis, Enzyme and Process Engineering)
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the use of biocatalysts in flow reactors. This merging combines the high selectivity and mild operation conditions typical of biocatalysis with enhanced mass transfer and resource efficiency associated to flow chemistry. Additionally, it provides a sound environment to emulate Nature by mimicking metabolic pathways in living cells and to produce goods through the systematic organization of enzymes towards efficient cascade reactions. Moreover, by enabling the combination of enzymes from different hosts, this approach paves the way for novel pathways. The present review aims to present recent developments within the scope of flow chemistry involving multi-enzymatic cascade reactions. The types of reactors used are briefly addressed. Immobilization methodologies and strategies for the application of the immobilized biocatalysts are presented and discussed. Key aspects related to the use of whole cells in flow chemistry are presented. The combination of chemocatalysis and biocatalysis is also addressed and relevant aspects are highlighted. Challenges faced in the transition from microscale to industrial scale are presented and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: microreactor; reaction cascade; whole cell; immobilization; scale-up microreactor; reaction cascade; whole cell; immobilization; scale-up
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, P.; de Carvalho, C.C.C.R. Multi-Enzyme Systems in Flow Chemistry. Processes 2021, 9, 225.

AMA Style

Fernandes P, de Carvalho CCCR. Multi-Enzyme Systems in Flow Chemistry. Processes. 2021; 9(2):225.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Pedro; de Carvalho, Carla C.C.R. 2021. "Multi-Enzyme Systems in Flow Chemistry" Processes 9, no. 2: 225.

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