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Article

A Multi-Scale Model for the Spread of HIV in a Population Considering the Immune Status of People

1
Licenciatura en Matemáticas, Universidad del Quindío, Quindío 630004, Colombia
2
Gerontología, Universidad del Quindío, Quindío 630004, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zuyi (Jacky) Huang
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111924
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation and Control for Disease)
A multi-scale mathematical model is proposed, seeking to describe the propagation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a group of young people between 15 and 24 years of age, through unprotected sexual contact. The uses of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and therapeutic failure are considered to show how the rate of propagation and prevalence are affected. The model consists of a complex network modeling the interactions on the population scale, coupled with the immunological dynamics of each individual, which is modeled by a system of differential equations. The immunological model allows to observe some known facts from the literature, such as to control HIV infection in the immune system, it is necessary to reduce the probability of healthy CD4 T cells becoming infected or increase the probability at which cells of the specific cell response against HIV eliminate infected CD4 T cells. At the population level, it is shown that, to have a high prevalence, it is not necessary for the virus to spread rapidly at the beginning of the simulation time. Additionally, it is observed that a greater number of sexual partners induces higher HIV prevalence. Using ART in the immune system reduces the number of infected CD4 T cells and, consequently, helps to reduce the spread of infection at the population scale. An important result observed in simulations is that the average number of HIV carriers who abandon ART is greater than those who access it. The study adds to the available literature an original simulation model that describes the dynamics of HIV propagation in a population, considering the immune state of people within that population, and serves as a basis for future research involving more detailed aspects aiming for a model closest to reality. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-scale model; system of differential equations; HIV propagation; complex network; basic reproduction number; antiretroviral therapy; prevalence multi-scale model; system of differential equations; HIV propagation; complex network; basic reproduction number; antiretroviral therapy; prevalence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vásquez-Quintero, S.d.A.; Toro-Zapata, H.D.; Prieto-Medellín, D.A. A Multi-Scale Model for the Spread of HIV in a Population Considering the Immune Status of People. Processes 2021, 9, 1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111924

AMA Style

Vásquez-Quintero SdA, Toro-Zapata HD, Prieto-Medellín DA. A Multi-Scale Model for the Spread of HIV in a Population Considering the Immune Status of People. Processes. 2021; 9(11):1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111924

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vásquez-Quintero, Sol d.A., Hernán D. Toro-Zapata, and Dennis A. Prieto-Medellín 2021. "A Multi-Scale Model for the Spread of HIV in a Population Considering the Immune Status of People" Processes 9, no. 11: 1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111924

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