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Open AccessArticle

Wheat Grinding Process with Low Moisture Content: A New Approach for Wholemeal Flour Production

1
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al-Qasim Green, Babylon 964, Iraq
2
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 31 Głęboka St., 20-612 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2021, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010032
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 12 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 25 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
The objective of this study was to determine the grinding characteristics of wheat with a low moisture content. Two kinds of wheat—soft spelt wheat and hard Khorasan wheat—were dried at 45 °C to reduce the moisture content from 12% to 5% (wet basis). Air drying at 45 °C and storage in a climatic chamber (45 °C, 10% relative humidity) were the methods used for grain dehydration. The grinding process was carried out using a knife mill. After grinding, the particle size distribution, average particle size and grinding energy indices were determined. In addition, the dough mixing properties of wholemeal flour dough were studied using a farinograph. It was observed that decreasing the moisture content in wheat grains from 12% to 5% made the grinding process more effective. As a result, the average particle size of the ground material was decreased. This effect was found in both soft and hard wheat. Importantly, lowering the grain moisture led to about a twofold decrease in the required grinding energy. Moreover, the flour obtained from the dried grains showed higher water absorption and higher dough stability during mixing. However, the method of grain dehydration had little or no effect on the results of the grinding process or dough properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: wholemeal flour; particle size; grinding energy; drying; wheat dough wholemeal flour; particle size; grinding energy; drying; wheat dough
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassoon, W.H.; Dziki, D.; Miś, A.; Biernacka, B. Wheat Grinding Process with Low Moisture Content: A New Approach for Wholemeal Flour Production. Processes 2021, 9, 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010032

AMA Style

Hassoon WH, Dziki D, Miś A, Biernacka B. Wheat Grinding Process with Low Moisture Content: A New Approach for Wholemeal Flour Production. Processes. 2021; 9(1):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassoon, Waleed H.; Dziki, Dariusz; Miś, Antoni; Biernacka, Beata. 2021. "Wheat Grinding Process with Low Moisture Content: A New Approach for Wholemeal Flour Production" Processes 9, no. 1: 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010032

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