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Article

Phosphate and Ammonium Removal from Water through Electrochemical and Chemical Precipitation of Struvite

Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
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Processes 2021, 9(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010150
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 9 January 2021 / Accepted: 10 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Technology)
Batch electrocoagulation (BEC), continuous electrocoagulation (CEC), and chemical precipitation (CP) were compared in struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) precipitation from synthetic and authentic water. In synthetic water treatment (SWT), struvite yield was in BEC 1.72, CEC 0.61, and CP 1.54 kg/m3. Corresponding values in authentic water treatment (AWT) were 2.55, 3.04, and 2.47 kg/m3. In SWT, 1 kg struvite costs in BEC, CEC, and CP were 0.55, 0.55, and 0.11 €, respectively, for AWT 0.35, 0.22 and 0.07 €. Phosphate removal in SWT was 93.6, 74.5, and 71.6% in BEC, CEC, and CP, respectively, the corresponding rates in AWT were 89.7, 77.8, and 74.4%. Ammonium removal for SWT in BEC, CEC, and CP were 79.4, 51.5, and 62.5%, respectively, rates in AWT 56.1, 64.1, and 60.9%. Efficiency in CEC and BEC are equal in nutrient recovery in SWT, although energy efficiency was better in CEC. CP is cheaper than BEC and CEC. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocoagulation; struvite; chemical precipitation; wastewater; ammonium; phosphate electrocoagulation; struvite; chemical precipitation; wastewater; ammonium; phosphate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajaniemi, K.; Hu, T.; Nurmesniemi, E.-T.; Tuomikoski, S.; Lassi, U. Phosphate and Ammonium Removal from Water through Electrochemical and Chemical Precipitation of Struvite. Processes 2021, 9, 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010150

AMA Style

Rajaniemi K, Hu T, Nurmesniemi E-T, Tuomikoski S, Lassi U. Phosphate and Ammonium Removal from Water through Electrochemical and Chemical Precipitation of Struvite. Processes. 2021; 9(1):150. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajaniemi, Kyösti, Tao Hu, Emma-Tuulia Nurmesniemi, Sari Tuomikoski, and Ulla Lassi. 2021. "Phosphate and Ammonium Removal from Water through Electrochemical and Chemical Precipitation of Struvite" Processes 9, no. 1: 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010150

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