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Review

Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Wastewater Sludge: A Review of Potential Co-Substrates and Operating Factors for Improved Methane Yield

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
3
28, Jalan Pulau Tioman U10/94, Taman Greenhill, Shah Alam 40170, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
5
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Zhongxiao E Rd, Da’an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010039
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies: Bridging Conventional Practices and Industry 4.0)
Anaerobic digestion has been widely employed in waste treatment for its ability to capture methane gas released as a product during the digestion. Certain wastes, however, cannot be easily digested due to their low nutrient level insufficient for anaerobic digestion, thus co-digestion is a viable option. Numerous studies have shown that using co-substrates in anaerobic digestion systems improve methane yields as positive synergisms are established in the digestion medium, and the supply of missing nutrients are introduced by the co-substrates. Nevertheless, large-scale implementation of co-digestion technology is limited by inherent process limitations and operational concerns. This review summarizes the results from numerous laboratory, pilot, and full-scale anaerobic co-digestion (ACD) studies of wastewater sludge with the co-substrates of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, food waste, crude glycerol, agricultural waste, and fat, oil and grease. The critical factors that influence the ACD operation are also discussed. The ultimate aim of this review is to identify the best potential co-substrate for wastewater sludge anaerobic co-digestion and provide a recommendation for future reference. By adding co-substrates, a gain ranging from 13 to 176% in the methane yield was accomplished compared to the mono-digestions. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; co-digestion; wastewater; biogas production; methane yield, sludge anaerobic digestion; co-digestion; wastewater; biogas production; methane yield, sludge
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chow, W.L.; Chong, S.; Lim, J.W.; Chan, Y.J.; Chong, M.F.; Tiong, T.J.; Chin, J.K.; Pan, G.-T. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Wastewater Sludge: A Review of Potential Co-Substrates and Operating Factors for Improved Methane Yield. Processes 2020, 8, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010039

AMA Style

Chow WL, Chong S, Lim JW, Chan YJ, Chong MF, Tiong TJ, Chin JK, Pan G-T. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Wastewater Sludge: A Review of Potential Co-Substrates and Operating Factors for Improved Methane Yield. Processes. 2020; 8(1):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chow, Wei L., Siewhui Chong, Jun W. Lim, Yi J. Chan, Mei F. Chong, Timm J. Tiong, Jit K. Chin, and Guan-Ting Pan. 2020. "Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Wastewater Sludge: A Review of Potential Co-Substrates and Operating Factors for Improved Methane Yield" Processes 8, no. 1: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010039

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