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Processes 2019, 7(4), 186;

Evaluation of the Influences of Scrap Melting and Dissolution during Dynamic Linz–Donawitz (LD) Converter Modelling

K1-MET GmbH, Stahlstraße 14, A-4020 Linz, Austria
Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz Josef Straße 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria
voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine Straße 3, A-4020 Linz, Austria
voestalpine Stahl Donawitz GmbH, Kerpelystraße 199, A-8700 Leoben, Austria
Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, Turmstraße 44, A-4020 Linz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Modelling and Simulation)
PDF [4767 KB, uploaded 31 March 2019]


The Linz–Donawitz (LD) converter is still the dominant process for converting hot metal into crude steel with the help of technically pure oxygen. Beside hot metal, scrap is the most important charging material which acts as an additional iron source and coolant. Because of the irrevocable importance of the process, there is continued interest in a dynamic simulation of the LD process, especially regarding the savings of material and process costs with optimized process times. Based on a thermodynamic and kinetic Matlab® coded model, the influences of several scrap parameters on its melting and dissolution behavior were determined, with a special focus on establishing the importance of specific factors on the crude steel composition and bath temperature after a defined blowing period to increase the accuracy of the process model. The calculations reported clearly indicate that the dynamic converter model reacts very sensitively to the chemical composition of the scrap as well as the charged scrap mass and size. Those results reflect the importance of experiments for validation on the diffusive scrap melting model in further research work. Based on that, reliable conclusions could be drawn to improve the theoretical and practical description of the dissolution and melting behavior of scrap in dynamic converter modelling. View Full-Text
Keywords: scrap dissolution; scrap melting; thermodynamics; kinetics; dynamic converter modelling scrap dissolution; scrap melting; thermodynamics; kinetics; dynamic converter modelling

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Penz, F.M.; Schenk, J.; Ammer, R.; Klösch, G.; Pastucha, K. Evaluation of the Influences of Scrap Melting and Dissolution during Dynamic Linz–Donawitz (LD) Converter Modelling. Processes 2019, 7, 186.

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