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Processes 2019, 7(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020074

Effect of Temperature and Microwave Power Levels on Microwave Drying Kinetics of Zhaotong Lignite

1
Key Laboratory of Resource Clean Conversion in Ethnic Regions, Education Department of Yunnan Province, School of Chemistry and Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, China
2
Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, China
3
Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
4
Center for Biorefining, Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering Department, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Applications in Chemical Engineering)
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Abstract

Microwave drying is a promising and effective way to drying and upgrading lignite. The influence of temperature (100–140 °C) and microwave power levels (500–800 W) on thin-layer drying characteristics of Zhaotong lignite under microwave irradiation were investigated. Fourteen thin-layer drying models were used to analyze the microwave drying process while six thin-layer drying models were used to analyze the hot-air drying process. The microwave drying processes at all temperature (100–140 °C) or low microwave power levels (500–700 W) exhibited four periods: a warm-up period, a short constant period, the first and second falling rate period, while one falling rate period was found during hot-air drying. The effective diffusion coefficient of lignite were calculated and it increases with increasing temperature and microwave power levels. During microwave drying, the two-term exponential model is the most suitable model for all applied conditions, while the Modified Page model is the most suitable model to describe the hot-air drying experiments. The apparent activation energy were determined from Arrhenius equation and the values for the first and second falling rate period are 3.349 and 20.808 kJ·mol−1 at different temperatures, while they are 13.455 and 19.580 W·g−1 at different microwave power levels. This implies the apparent activation energy is higher during the second falling rate period, which suggest that the dewatering of absorbed water is more difficult than capillary water. The value of apparent activation energy in hot-air drying is between the first and second falling rate period of microwave drying. Results indicate that microwave drying is more suitable to dewatering free water and capillary water of lignite. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignite; microwave drying kinetics; hot-air drying kinetics; effective diffusion coefficient; apparent activation energy lignite; microwave drying kinetics; hot-air drying kinetics; effective diffusion coefficient; apparent activation energy
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Zhao, P.; Liu, C.; Qu, W.; He, Z.; Gao, J.; Jia, L.; Ji, S.; Ruan, R. Effect of Temperature and Microwave Power Levels on Microwave Drying Kinetics of Zhaotong Lignite. Processes 2019, 7, 74.

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