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Open AccessArticle

Numerical Simulation of Darcy–Forchheimer 3D Unsteady Nanofluid Flow Comprising Carbon Nanotubes with Cattaneo–Christov Heat Flux and Velocity and Thermal Slip Conditions

1
School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026, China
2
Department of Mathematics and Social Sciences, Sukkur IBA University, Sukkur 65200, Pakistan
3
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Computer Science, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
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Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
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Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
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Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(10), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100687
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids)
A mathematical model comprising Darcy Forchheimer effects on the 3D nanofluid flow with engine oil as a base fluid containing suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is envisioned. The CNTs are of both types i.e., multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The flow is initiated by an exponentially stretched surface. The impacts of Cattaneo–Christov heat flux along with velocity and thermal slip conditions are key factors in the novelty of the defined model. The boundary layer notion is designed to convert the compact form of equations into the component shape. Appropriate transformations lead to differential equations with high nonlinearity. The final non-dimensional system is solved numerically by a “MATLAB” function known as bvp4c. For both CNTs, different graphical sketches are drawn to present the influence of arising parameters versus related profiles. The outcomes show that higher slip parameter boosts the axial velocity, whereas fluid temperature lowers for a sturdier relaxation parameter. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofluid flow; Darcy–Forchheimer flow; numerical solution; Cattaneo–Christov heat flux; carbon nanotubes nanofluid flow; Darcy–Forchheimer flow; numerical solution; Cattaneo–Christov heat flux; carbon nanotubes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, J.U.; Khan, U.; Ahmad, S.; Ramzan, M.; Suleman, M.; Lu, D.; Inam, S. Numerical Simulation of Darcy–Forchheimer 3D Unsteady Nanofluid Flow Comprising Carbon Nanotubes with Cattaneo–Christov Heat Flux and Velocity and Thermal Slip Conditions. Processes 2019, 7, 687.

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