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# Buongiorno’s Nanofluid Model over a Curved Exponentially Stretching Surface

by 3 and 3,*
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Shaqra University, Dawadmi, P.O. 11911, Ar Riyadh 11564, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, PO Box 9004, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(10), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100665
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Methods)
We considered the steady flow of Buongiorno’s model over a permeable exponentially stretching channel. The mathematical model was constructed with the assumptions on curved channels. After applying the boundary layer approximation on the Navier–Stocks equation, we produced nonlinear partial differential equations. These equations were converted into a system of non-dimensional ordinary differential equations through an appropriate similarity transformation. The dimensionless forms of the coupled ordinary differential equations were elucidated numerically through boundary value problem fourth order method. This method gains fast convergence as compared to other method such as the shooting method and the Numerical Solution of Differential Equations Mathematica method. The influence of the governing parameters which are involved in ordinary differential equations are highlighted through graphs while $R e s 1 / 2 C f$ , $R e s 1 / 2 N u s$ , and $R e s − 1 / 2 S h s$ are highlighted through the tables. Our interest of study was to analyze the heat transfer rate of nanofluids. Surprisingly, for momentum boundary layer thickness, thermal boundary layer thickness and solutal boundary layer thickness became larger when $λ > 0$ , as compared to the case when $λ < 0$ . View Full-Text
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alblawi, A.; Malik, M.Y.; Nadeem, S.; Abbas, N. Buongiorno’s Nanofluid Model over a Curved Exponentially Stretching Surface. Processes 2019, 7, 665.

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