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Open AccessArticle

Gaussian Process Methodology for Multi-Frequency Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Profile Estimation in Isotropic Medium

1
Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, 62200 Putrajaya, Malaysia
3
Department of Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(10), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100661
Received: 18 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies: Bridging Conventional Practices and Industry 4.0)
The marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface underneath the seabed. The modeling of marine CSEM is a crucial and time-consuming task due to the complexity of its mathematical equations. Hence, high computational cost is incurred to solve the linear systems, especially for high-dimensional models. Addressing these problems, we propose Gaussian process (GP) calibrated with computer experiment outputs to estimate multi-frequency marine CSEM profiles at various hydrocarbon depths. This methodology utilizes prior information to provide beneficial EM profiles with uncertainty quantification in terms of variance (95% confidence interval). In this paper, prior marine CSEM information was generated through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software at various observed hydrocarbon depths (250–2750 m with an increment of 250 m each) and different transmission frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). A two-dimensional (2D) forward GP model was developed for every frequency by utilizing the marine CSEM information. From the results, the uncertainty measurement showed that the estimates were close to the mean. For model validation, the calculated root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of variation (CV) proved in good agreement between the computer output and the estimated EM profile at unobserved hydrocarbon depths. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic technique; Gaussian process; uncertainty quantification; computer experiment, electromagnetic profile estimation multiple frequency marine controlled-source electromagnetic technique; Gaussian process; uncertainty quantification; computer experiment, electromagnetic profile estimation
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Mohd Aris, M.N.; Daud, H.; Dass, S.C.; Mohd Noh, K.A. Gaussian Process Methodology for Multi-Frequency Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Profile Estimation in Isotropic Medium. Processes 2019, 7, 661.

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