# Investigation on Reinforcement and Lapping Effect of Fracture Grouting in Yellow River Embankment

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## Abstract

**:**

^{−6}cm/s, which meets the anti-seepage criterion in practice.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Scheme and Testing Procedure

#### 2.1. Grouting Material Laboratory Experiment

#### 2.1.1. Raw Material

#### 2.1.2. Experimental Scheme

_{3}can be generated, which improves the anti-aqueous solubility of the concretion and promotes the durability of the anti-seepage curtain. According to Sha [27], the optimum percentage of fly ash ranges from 20% to 30%.

#### 2.1.3. Testing Procedure

#### 2.2. In Situ Grouting Test

#### 2.2.1. Yellow River Silt

_{u}) and curvature coefficient (C

_{c}) of Yellow River Silt are 3.6 and 1.51 respectively. It can be seen that the particle gradation of the Yellow River silt is relatively uniform and the particles in the size range 0.002–0.074 mm account for more than 80%. In addition, the gradation of the soil is poor as C

_{u}is smaller than 5. Based on the results from the direct shear tests, the cohesion (c

_{q}) and angle of shearing resistance ($\phi $

_{q}) are 10.78 kPa and 23.67°, respectively. The permeability of the Yellow River silt is obtained by the variable water head permeability test and the tested permeability coefficient is 5.913 × 10

^{−5}cm/s.

#### 2.2.2. Design of In Situ Grouting Tests

_{max}= γh + σ

_{t},

_{t}represent the specific weight of soil, the depth of grouting pipe and soil tensile strength respectively.

^{3}, σ

_{t}= 10 kPa(empirical value) and h = 3 m into Equation (1), the maximum allowable pressure is determined to be 56.5 kPa.

_{u}≤ γhtan

^{2}(45° + φ/2) + 2c tan (45° + φ/2).

#### 2.2.3. Grouting Procedure

#### 2.2.4. Geophysical Prospecting Method

## 3. Discussion of Laboratory Results

#### 3.1. Gelation Time of the Slurry

#### 3.2. Strength of the Specimen

#### 3.3. SEM Analysis of Specimen

## 4. Discussion of In Situ Test Results

#### 4.1. Geophysical Prospecting for Grouting Effectiveness

#### 4.1.1. Results in Axial Direction

#### 4.1.2. Vertical Direction

#### 4.2. Pit Prospecting for Grouting Effectiveness

^{−6}cm/s on average. According to DL/T 5129-2013, the required permeability coefficient for an impervious body should be less than 1.0 × 10

^{−5}cm/s. The modified cement silicate grouting material used in the in situ tests can meet the anti-seepage criterion in practical engineering.

^{−6}cm/s on average, which meets the anti-seepage criterion in practical engineering. In summary, the grouting type in Yellow River silt is mainly fracture grouting. The grouting effectiveness of the field test is satisfactory based on the results of geophysical prospecting and pit prospecting tests.

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- Compared with pure cement–silicate grouts, the gelation time of the improved slurry is longer and gelation time increases as fly ash content increases. The optimum mixing proportion of the compound cement–silicate grout is 70% cement, 25% fly ash, and 5% bentonite, and the best volume ratio is 2 for the investigated cases.
- (2)
- Good agreement is found between the ground-penetrating radar and high-density resistivity methods and the two geophysical prospecting methods can both reflect the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting on site.
- (3)
- The pit prospecting result shows that grouting material mainly flows along the axial direction of the embankment, which means that the treatment used to generate directional fracture is proven to be effective. The injection hole interval distance is suggested to be 1.2 m, where the lapping effect of the grouting veins is relatively significant.
- (4)
- For the investigated cases, the average thickness of the grouting veins is approximately 6.0 cm and the corresponding permeability coefficient is averagely 1.6 × 10
^{−6}cm/s, which meets the anti-seepage criterion in practice.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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Material | CaO (%) | SiO_{2} (%) | Al_{2}O_{3} (%) | Fe_{2}O_{3} (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|

PC | 62.60 | 22.61 | 4.35 | 2.46 |

FA | 3.75 | 54.64 | 28.09 | 6.20 |

Water Absorption | Swell Volume | Colloid Valence | Particle Size (75 μm) | Water Content |
---|---|---|---|---|

420% (2 h) | 49 mL/g | 630 mL/15 g | 95% | 9% |

**Table 3.**Proportion of mixture of experimental grout. VR: Volume ratio; FA: Fly ash; PC: Portland cement; B: Bentonite.

Number | VR | FA/% | PC/% | B/% |
---|---|---|---|---|

A1 | 1:1 | 20 | 75 | 5 |

A2 | 1:1 | 25 | 70 | 5 |

A3 | 1:1 | 30 | 65 | 5 |

B1 | 2:1 | 20 | 75 | 5 |

B2 | 2:1 | 25 | 70 | 5 |

B3 | 2:1 | 30 | 65 | 5 |

C1 | 3:1 | 20 | 75 | 5 |

C2 | 3:1 | 25 | 70 | 5 |

C3 | 3:1 | 30 | 65 | 5 |

D1 | 4:1 | 20 | 75 | 5 |

D2 | 4:1 | 25 | 70 | 5 |

D3 | 4:1 | 30 | 65 | 5 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Liu, J.; Wan, Z.; Xie, Q.; Li, C.; Liu, R.; Cheng, M.; Han, B.
Investigation on Reinforcement and Lapping Effect of Fracture Grouting in Yellow River Embankment. *Processes* **2018**, *6*, 75.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6070075

**AMA Style**

Liu J, Wan Z, Xie Q, Li C, Liu R, Cheng M, Han B.
Investigation on Reinforcement and Lapping Effect of Fracture Grouting in Yellow River Embankment. *Processes*. 2018; 6(7):75.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6070075

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Liu, Jian, Zhi Wan, Quanyi Xie, Cong Li, Rui Liu, Mengying Cheng, and Bo Han.
2018. "Investigation on Reinforcement and Lapping Effect of Fracture Grouting in Yellow River Embankment" *Processes* 6, no. 7: 75.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6070075