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Article

Waste Fuel Combustion: Dynamic Modeling and Control

1
Mälardalen University, Box 883, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden
2
ABB Force Measurement, Tvärleden 2, 721 36 Västerås, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2018, 6(11), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110222
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems)
The focus of this study is to present the adherent transients that accompany the combustion of waste derived fuels. This is accomplished, in large, by developing a dynamic model of the process, which can then be used for control purposes. Traditional control measures typically applied in the heat and power industry, i.e., PI (proportional-integral) controllers, might not be robust enough to handle the the accompanied transients associated with new fuels. Therefore, model predictive control is introduced as a means to achieve better combustion stability under transient conditions. The transient behavior of refuse derived fuel is addressed by developing a dynamic modeling library. Within the library, there are two models. The first is for assessing the performance of the heat exchangers to provide operational assistance for maintenance scheduling. The second model is of a circulating fluidized bed block, which includes combustion and steam (thermal) networks. The library has been validated using data from a 160 MW industrial installation located in Västerås, Sweden. The model can predict, with satisfactory accuracy, the boiler bed and riser temperatures, live steam temperature, and boiler load. This has been achieved by using process sensors for the feed-in streams. Based on this model three different control schemes are presented: a PI control scheme, model predictive control with feedforward, and model predictive control without feedforward. The model predictive control with feedforward has proven to give the best performance as it can maintain stable temperature profiles throughout the process when a measured disturbance is initiated. Furthermore, the implemented control incorporates the introduction of a soft-sensor for measuring the minimum fluidization velocity to maintain a consistent level of fluidization in the boiler for deterring bed material agglomeration. View Full-Text
Keywords: circulating fluidized bed boiler; refuse derived fuel; waste to energy; dynamic modeling; process control circulating fluidized bed boiler; refuse derived fuel; waste to energy; dynamic modeling; process control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmerman, N.; Kyprianidis, K.; Lindberg, C.-F. Waste Fuel Combustion: Dynamic Modeling and Control. Processes 2018, 6, 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110222

AMA Style

Zimmerman N, Kyprianidis K, Lindberg C-F. Waste Fuel Combustion: Dynamic Modeling and Control. Processes. 2018; 6(11):222. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmerman, Nathan, Konstantinos Kyprianidis, and Carl-Fredrik Lindberg. 2018. "Waste Fuel Combustion: Dynamic Modeling and Control" Processes 6, no. 11: 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110222

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