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Article

Impact of Income on Life Expectancy: A Challenge for the Pension Policy

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Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Gagarina 13A, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
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Faculty of Law and Administration, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Bojarskiego 3, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
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Department of Social Insurance, Warsaw School of Economics, Aleja Niepodległości 162, 02-554 Warszawa, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens Perch Nielsen
Risks 2021, 9(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks9040065
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 31 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pension Design, Modelling and Risk Management)
The aim of this paper is to present life expectancy of both genders depending on their income and to determine the impact of a possible regularity on the state pension policy. The study was based on the income of pensioners in Poland (over 5 million people receiving old-age pension). The results obtained made it possible to formulate several important conclusions: the rich live longer; the impact of income on life expectancy is much stronger among men than women; and with age, income has less and less impact on life expectancy. Consequently, in the capital model that is in force in Poland, the state should take this fact into account in its pension policy when calculating the amount of the benefit. View Full-Text
Keywords: life expectancy; gender gap; welfare justice; mortality; pension policy life expectancy; gender gap; welfare justice; mortality; pension policy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walczak, D.; Wantoch-Rekowski, J.; Marczak, R. Impact of Income on Life Expectancy: A Challenge for the Pension Policy. Risks 2021, 9, 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/risks9040065

AMA Style

Walczak D, Wantoch-Rekowski J, Marczak R. Impact of Income on Life Expectancy: A Challenge for the Pension Policy. Risks. 2021; 9(4):65. https://doi.org/10.3390/risks9040065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walczak, Damian, Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski, and Robert Marczak. 2021. "Impact of Income on Life Expectancy: A Challenge for the Pension Policy" Risks 9, no. 4: 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/risks9040065

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