Improving Motor Skills in Early Childhood through Goal-Oriented Play Activity
2. Materials and Methods
- Adpriyadi (2016). “Improving gross motor skills through the hopscotch traditional game for children of group B at TK Tunas Gading Yogyakarta in the 2015/2016 academic year” .
- Gümüşdağ, H. (2019). “Effect of pre-school play on motor development in children” .
- Moghaddaszadeh, A., and Belcastro, A. N. (2021). “Guided active play promotes physical activity and improves fundamental motor skills for school-aged children” .
- Khasanah and Sutapa (2018). “Development of teaching model through circuit game to increasing children’s gross motor ability” .
- To run, the necessary tools were a running track and a stopwatch.
- The long jump took place without prior running (prefix), and the tool required was a yardstick.
- The ball was thrown as far as possible, and the tools required were a tennis ball and yardstick.
- The coordination test required arranging the cans into a triangle shape from highest to lowest, 5 then 4, then 3, 2, 1; the tools needed were used cans and a stopwatch.
- The tools needed for balance were a walkway beam and a stopwatch.
- The coordination exercise required throwing and catching the ball, and the tools needed were a tennis ball and a stopwatch.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Ray, D.C. Culturally and linguistically responsive play therapy: Adapting child-centered play therapy for deaf children. Int. J. Play. Ther. 2019, 28, 79. [Google Scholar]
- Mota, J.; Silva-Santos, S.; Santos, A.; Seabra, A.; Duncan, M.; Vale, S. Parental education and perception of outdoor playing time for preschoolers. Mot. Rev. De Educ. Física 2017, 23, e101762. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- St. John, S. Factoring in fine motor: How improving fine motor abilities impacts reading and writing. Ill. Read. Counc. J. 2013, 41, 134–146. [Google Scholar]
- Roth, K.; Ruf, K.; Obinger, M.; Mauer, S.; Ahnert, J.; Schneider, W.; Graf, C.; Hebestreit, H. Is there a secular decline in motor skills in preschool children? Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 2010, 20, 670–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cristia, A.; Seidl, A. Parental reports on touch screen use in early childhood. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0128338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bergen, D. Play as the Learning Medium for Future Scientists, Mathematicians, and Engineers. Am. J. Play 2009, 1, 413–428. [Google Scholar]
- Mukherji, P.; Dryden, L. Foundations of Early Childhood Principles and Practice; SAGE Publication: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Sutapa, P.; Prasetyo, Y.; Pratama, K.W.; Karakauki, M.; Mustapha, A.; Idrus, S.Z.S. Motor Development Index (MDI) Based on Combination of Human Development Index (HDI) and Sport Development Index (SDI) as a Success Parameter of Motor Development among Preschool Children: An Observational Study. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 2020, 1529, 032003. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hong, J.C.; Hwang, M.Y.; Liu, Y.T.; Lin, P.H.; Chen, Y.L. The role of pre-game learning attitude in the prediction to competitive anxiety, perceived utility of pre-game learning of game, and gameplay interest. Interact. Learn. Environ. 2016, 24, 239–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Connelly, J.A.; Champagne, M.; Manningham, S. Early childhood educators’ perception of their role in Children’s physical activity: Do we need to clarify expectations? J. Res. Child. Educ. 2018, 32, 283–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goldstein, J. Play in Children’s Development, Health and Well-Being; Toy Industries of Europe: Brussels, Belgium, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Coker, C.A. Motor Learning and Control for Practitioners; Routledge: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Bardid, F.; Huyben, F.; Deconinck, F.J.; De Martelaer, K.; Seghers, J.; Lenoir, M. Convergent and divergent validity between the KTK and MOT 4-6 motor tests in early childhood. Adapt. Phys. Act. Q. 2016, 33, 33–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rudd, J.R.; Barnett, L.M.; Butson, M.L.; Farrow, D.; Berry, J.; Polman, R.C. Fundamental movement skills are more than run, throw and catch: The role of stability skills. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0140224. [Google Scholar]
- Kokštejn, J.; Musálek, M.; Šťastný, P.; Golas, A. Fundamental motor skills of Czech children at the end of the preschool period. Acta Gymnica 2017, 47, 193–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Carlson, A.G.; Rowe, E.; Curby, T.W. Disentangling fine motor skills’ relations to academic achievement: The relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination. J. Genet. Psychol. 2013, 174, 514–533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Madrona, P.G. Site development and teaching of motor skills in early childhood education. J. Arts Humanit. 2014, 3, 09–20. [Google Scholar]
- Payne, V.G.; Isaacs, L.D. Human Motor Development: A Lifespan Approach; Routledge: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Johnston, J.; Halocha, J. Early Childhood and Primary Education: Readings and Reflections; McGraw-Hill Education: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Hill, E.L.; Khanem, F. The development of hand preference in children: The effect of task demands and links with manual dexterity. Brain Cogn. 2009, 71, 99–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, J.H.T. A study on gross motor skills of preschool children. J. Res. Child. Educ. 2004, 19, 32–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Senturk, U.; Beyleroglu, M.; Guven, F.; Yilmaz, A.; Akdeniz, H. Motor skills in pre-school education and affects to 5 year old children’s psychomotor development. Turk. J. Sport Exerc. 2015, 17, 42–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Semoglou, K.; Alevriadou, A.; Tsapakidou, A. Gross and fine motor skills: The case of Roma. Eur. Psychomot. J. 2008, 1, 17–22. [Google Scholar]
- Spanaki, I.E.; Venetsanou, F.; Evaggelinou, C.; Skordilis, E.K. Graphomotor skills of Greek kindergarten and elementary school children: Effect of a fine motor intervention program. Compr. Psychol. 2014, 3, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Chen, H.Y.; Meng, L.F.; Yu, Y.; Chen, C.C.; Hung, L.Y.; Lin, S.C.; Chi, H.J. Developmental Traits of Impulse Control Behavior in School Children under Controlled Attention, Motor Function, and Perception. Children 2021, 8, 922. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Robinson, L.E.; Webster, E.K.; Logan, S.W.; Lucas, W.A.; Barber, L.T. Teaching practices that promote motor skills in early childhood settings. Early Child. Educ. J. 2012, 40, 79–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koralek, D. Learning through experience. YC Young Child. 2010, 65, 10. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, J. A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 1992, 112, 155–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wasenius, N.S.; Grattan, K.P.; Harvey, A.L.; Naylor, P.J.; Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B. The effect of a physical activity intervention on preschoolers’ fundamental motor skills—A cluster RCT. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2018, 21, 714–719. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Veldman, S.L.; Jones, R.A.; Okely, A.D. Efficacy of gross motor skill interventions in young children: An updated systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc. Med. 2016, 2, e000067. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lestari, I.; Ratnaningsih, T. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers. Int. J. Eval. Res. Educ. 2016, 5, 216–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Adpriyadi, A. Peningkatan kemampuan motorik kasar melalui permainan tradisional Engklek pada anak kelompok B. JPPM (J. Pendidik. Dan Pemberdaya. Masy.) 2017, 4, 187–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gümüşdağ, H. Effect of Pre-school Play on Motor Development in Children. Univers. J. Educ. Res. 2019, 7, 580–587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Moghaddaszadeh, A.; Belcastro, A.N. Guided Active Play Promotes Physical Activity and Improves Fundamental Motor Skills for School-Aged Children. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2021, 20, 86. [Google Scholar]
- Khasanah, I.; Sutapa, P. Development of Teaching Model through Circuit Game to Increasing Children’s Gross Motor Ability. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Early Childhood Education, Semarang Early Childhood Research and Education Talks (SECRET 2018), Bandung, Indonesia, 7 November 2018; Atlantis Press: Paris, France; pp. 138–146. [Google Scholar]
- Denysschen, M.; Coetzee, D.; Smits-Engelsman, B. Children with Poor Motor Skills Have Lower Health-Related Fitness Compared to Typically Developing Children. Children 2021, 8, 867. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ilgar, E.A.; Cihan, B.B. Metaphoric Perceptions of School Principals towards Physical Education Term. Int. J. High. Educ. 2018, 7, 194–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yarimkaya, E.; Ulucan, D.D.H. The effect of movement education program on the motor development of children. Int. J. New Trends Arts Sports Sci. Educ. (IJTASE) 2014, 4, 37–48. [Google Scholar]
- Han, A.; Fu, A.; Cobley, S.; Sanders, R.H. Effectiveness of exercise intervention on improving fundamental movement skills and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents: A systematic review. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2018, 21, 89–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Altinkök, M. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children’s Basic Motor Skills Improvement. Univers. J. Educ. Res. 2016, 4, 1050–1058. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rosselet, J.G.; Stauffer, S.D. Using group role-playing games with gifted children and adolescents: A psychosocial intervention model. Int. J. Play. Ther. 2013, 22, 173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Whitehead, M. (Ed.) Physical Literacy: Throughout the Lifecourse; Routledge: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Shenouda, L.; Gabel, L.; Timmons, B.W. Preschooler focus-physical activity and motor skill development. Child Health Exerc. Med. Program 2011, 1, 1–2. [Google Scholar]
- Zawi, K.; Lian, D.K.C.; Abdullah, R.T. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre-and Early School Children. Int. Educ. Stud. 2014, 7, 242–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lopes, L.; Santos, R.; Pereira, B.; Lopes, V.P. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children. Hum. Mov. Sci. 2013, 32, 9–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cohen, K.E.; Morgan, P.J.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Callister, R.; Lubans, D.R. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: A cross-sectional study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2014, 11, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pahlevanian, A.A.; Ahmadizadeh, Z. Relationship between gender and motor skills in preschoolers. Middle East J. Rehabil. Health 2014, 1, e20843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fallah, E.; Nourbakhsh, P.; Bagherly, J. The effect of eight weeks of gymnastics exercises on the development of gross motor skills of five to six years old girls. Eur. Online J. Nat. Soc. Sci. Proc. 2015, 4, 845. [Google Scholar]
- Kumar, S.; Kelly, A.S. Review of childhood obesity: From epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidities to clinical assessment and treatment. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; Volume 92, pp. 251–265. [Google Scholar]
- Figueroa, R.; An, R. Motor skill competence and physical activity in preschoolers: A review. Matern. Child Health J. 2017, 21, 136–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|1||Walking on balance beam||Starting point as POS 1, after finish run to POS 2|
|2||Moving sticks||This is POS 2, after finish run to POS 3|
|3||Jumping goalposts||This is POS 3, after finish run to POS 4|
|4||Throwing balls||This is POS 4, after finish run to POS 5|
|5||Arranging blocks||This is POS 5, the finishing point|
|Sample size||N = 20||N = 20||N = 40|
|Training Type||Pre-Training Values||Post-Training Values|
|25 m run (s)||9.71(1.76)||4.98(1.03)|
|Throw the ball (m)||* 2.76(0.98)||* 5.90(1.72)|
|Locomotor jump (cm)||46.80(7.60)||78.28(13.10)|
|Can arrangement (s)||11.14 (1.62)||7.18(1.01)|
|Balance beam walk (s)||9.83(1.49)||6.89(0.85)|
|Throwing and catching the ball (count/20 times)||* 11.0(4.0)||* 16.5(2.75)|
|Training Study||Mean (Standard Deviation)||95% Confidence Interval||Significance Level (p Value)|
|Lower Limit||Upper Limit|
|25 m run (second)||4.74(1.68)||4.20||5.27||0.000|
|Locomotor jump (cm)||−31.47(12.61)||−35.61||−27.44||0.000|
|Can arrangement (second)||3.96(1.39)||3.52||4.41||0.000|
|Balance beam walk (second)||2.94(1.45)||2.47||3.40||0.000|
|Training Study||Mean Rank||95% Confidence Interval||Significance Level (p Value)|
|Lower Limit||Upper Limit|
|Throw the ball (meter)||39||0.000||0.000||0.000|
|Throwing and catching the ball (count/20 times)||20.50||0.000||0.000||0.000|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sutapa, P.; Pratama, K.W.; Rosly, M.M.; Ali, S.K.S.; Karakauki, M. Improving Motor Skills in Early Childhood through Goal-Oriented Play Activity. Children 2021, 8, 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8110994
Sutapa P, Pratama KW, Rosly MM, Ali SKS, Karakauki M. Improving Motor Skills in Early Childhood through Goal-Oriented Play Activity. Children. 2021; 8(11):994. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8110994Chicago/Turabian Style
Sutapa, Panggung, Kukuh Wahyudin Pratama, Maziah Mat Rosly, Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Ali, and Manil Karakauki. 2021. "Improving Motor Skills in Early Childhood through Goal-Oriented Play Activity" Children 8, no. 11: 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8110994