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Article

Development of Social Skills in Kindergarten: A Latent Class Growth Modeling Approach

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School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 3058577, Japan
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Faculty of Nursing, Musashino University, Tokyo 2028585, Japan
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Faculty of Nursing, Keio University, Tokyo 1088345, Japan
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Faculty of Nursing, Shukutoku University, Chiba 2608701, Japan
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Faculty of Health Medicine, Morinomiya University of Medical Sciences, Osaka 5598611, Japan
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 3058577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michelle de Haan
Children 2021, 8(10), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100870
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
Social skills acquired during early childhood are often the foundation for success later in life. Using a nationwide survey dataset in Japan, this study aims to explore the multiple growth trajectories of social skills among children in kindergarten by using a latent class growth modeling approach. It also examines whether, and to what extent, the home-rearing environment at early age predict trajectories of social skills development. Children in this study were assessed on social skills at three waves, four home-rearing environment dimensions (human stimulation, social stimulation, avoidance of punishment, and social support for parenting) and demographic background were measured at wave 1. The results indicated that three distinct growth trajectories of social skills existed during kindergarten: high increase levels, moderate increase levels, and decreased levels. The avoidance of punishment and children’s gender significantly predicted the growth trajectories of social skills. Thus, the results suggest that more attention should be paid to the home-rearing environment and boys. View Full-Text
Keywords: social skills; home rearing environment; kindergarten children; latent class growth analysis social skills; home rearing environment; kindergarten children; latent class growth analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.-T.; Li, X.; Jiao, D.-D.; Tanaka, E.; Tomisaki, E.; Watanabe, T.; Sawada, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Ajmal, A.; Matsumoto, M.; Anme, T. Development of Social Skills in Kindergarten: A Latent Class Growth Modeling Approach. Children 2021, 8, 870. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100870

AMA Style

Zhu Y-T, Li X, Jiao D-D, Tanaka E, Tomisaki E, Watanabe T, Sawada Y, Zhu Z, Ajmal A, Matsumoto M, Anme T. Development of Social Skills in Kindergarten: A Latent Class Growth Modeling Approach. Children. 2021; 8(10):870. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100870

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Yan-Tong, Xiang Li, Dan-Dan Jiao, Emiko Tanaka, Etsuko Tomisaki, Taeko Watanabe, Yuko Sawada, Zhu Zhu, Ammara Ajmal, Munenori Matsumoto, and Tokie Anme. 2021. "Development of Social Skills in Kindergarten: A Latent Class Growth Modeling Approach" Children 8, no. 10: 870. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100870

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