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Parental Attitudes toward Artificial Intelligence-Driven Precision Medicine Technologies in Pediatric Healthcare

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
3
Brown School, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2020, 7(9), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090145
Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 13 September 2020 / Accepted: 17 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
Precision medicine relies upon artificial intelligence (AI)-driven technologies that raise ethical and practical concerns. In this study, we developed and validated a measure of parental openness and concerns with AI-driven technologies in their child’s healthcare. In this cross-sectional survey, we enrolled parents of children <18 years in 2 rounds for exploratory (n = 418) and confirmatory (n = 386) factor analysis. We developed a 12-item measure of parental openness to AI-driven technologies, and a 33-item measure identifying concerns that parents found important when considering these technologies. We also evaluated associations between openness and attitudes, beliefs, personality traits, and demographics. Parents (N = 804) reported mean openness to AI-driven technologies of M = 3.4/5, SD = 0.9. We identified seven concerns that parents considered important when evaluating these technologies: quality/accuracy, privacy, shared decision making, convenience, cost, human element of care, and social justice. In multivariable linear regression, parental openness was positively associated with quality (beta = 0.23), convenience (beta = 0.16), and cost (beta = 0.11), as well as faith in technology (beta = 0.23) and trust in health information systems (beta = 0.12). Parental openness was negatively associated with the perceived importance of shared decision making (beta = −0.16) and being female (beta = −0.12). Developers might support parental openness by addressing these concerns during the development and implementation of novel AI-driven technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatrics; personalized medicine; ethics; biomedical technology; child health; artificial intelligence; machine learning; precision medicine pediatrics; personalized medicine; ethics; biomedical technology; child health; artificial intelligence; machine learning; precision medicine
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Sisk, B.A.; Antes, A.L.; Burrous, S.; DuBois, J.M. Parental Attitudes toward Artificial Intelligence-Driven Precision Medicine Technologies in Pediatric Healthcare. Children 2020, 7, 145.

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