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Children 2017, 4(12), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4120103

Bronchitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations Children

1
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
2
College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
3
Department of Academic Family Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, West Winds Primary Health Centre, 3311 Fairlight Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7M 3Y5, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
5
Community A, P.O. Box 250, Montreal Lake, SK S0J 1J0, Canada
6
Community B, P.O. Box 96, Duck Lake, SK S0K1J0, Canada
7
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract

Respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, are common in First Nations children in Canada. The objectives are to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of bronchitis in children 6–17 years old residing in two reserve communities. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 and children from two First Nations reserve communities participated. The outcome was ever presence/absence of bronchitis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between bronchitis and the individual and environmental factors. A total of 351 First Nations children participated in the study. The prevalence of bronchitis was 17.9%. While 86.6% had at least one parent who smoked, smoking inside home was 43.9%. Signs of mold and mildew in homes were high. Prevalence of houses with any damage caused by dampness was 42.2%, with 44.2% of homes showing signs of mold or mildew. Significant predictors of increased risk of bronchitis were: being obese; having respiratory allergies; exposed to parental cigarette smoking; and signs of mold and mildew in the home. There are several modifiable risk factors that should be considered when examining preventive interventions for bronchitis including obesity, smoking exposure, and home mold or dampness. View Full-Text
Keywords: bronchitis; First Nations; children; parental smoking; mold; dampness bronchitis; First Nations; children; parental smoking; mold; dampness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karunanayake, C.P.; Rennie, D.C.; Ramsden, V.R.; Fenton, M.; Kirychuk, S.; Lawson, J.A.; Henderson, R.; Jimmy, L.; Seeseequasis, J.; Abonyi, S.; Dosman, J.A.; Pahwa, P.; The First Nations Lung Health Project Research Team. Bronchitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations Children. Children 2017, 4, 103.

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