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Open AccessArticle

Low-Grade Inflammation Is Not Present in Former Obese Males but Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Persists

1
Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development—GENUD Toledo Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Networking Center on Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Xlab, Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200N Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200N Copenhagen, Denmark
5
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050123
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macrophages in Health and Non-Infectious Disease)
Macrophage infiltration in two subcutaneous adipose tissue depots and systemic low-grade inflammation were studied in post-obese (PO), obese (O), and control (C) subjects. Young males were recruited into PO: (n = 10, weight-loss avg. 26%, BMI: 26.6 ± 0.7, mean ±SEM kg/m2), O: (n = 10, BMI: 33.8 ± 1.0kg/m2) and C: (n = 10, BMI: 26.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2). PO and C were matched by BMI. Blood and abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained in the overnight fasted state. Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and CRP were higher (p < 0.05) in O than in PO and C, TNF-α was higher (p < 0.05) only in O compared to PO and IL-18 was similar between groups. The number of CD68+ macrophages was higher (p < 0.05) in the gluteal than the abdominal depot, and higher (p < 0.05) in O and PO compared to C in both depots. The content of CD163+ macrophages was similar between depots but was higher (p < 0.05) in PO compared to C and O in the gluteal depot. In post obese men with a long-term sustained weight loss, systemic low-grade inflammation was similar to non-obese controls despite a higher subcutaneous adipose tissue CD68+ macrophage content. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory CD163+ macrophage adipose tissue content was consistently higher in post obese than obese and controls. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; abdominal; gluteal; cytokines; weight loss obesity; abdominal; gluteal; cytokines; weight loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ara, I.; Auerbach, P.; Larsen, S.; Mata, E.; Stallknecht, B.; Ploug, T.; Prats, C.; Helge, J.W. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Not Present in Former Obese Males but Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Persists. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 123.

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