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Open AccessReview

Basal Cell Carcinoma: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches

1
Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata-IRCCS, via dei Monti di Creta 104, 00167 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Philipps University, 35043 Marburg, Germany
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(11), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110449
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 17 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancer: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches 2.0)
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer worldwide, and is a subtype of nonmelanoma skin cancer, characterized by a constantly increasing incidence due to an aging population and widespread sun exposure. Although the mortality from BCC is negligible, this tumor can be associated with significant morbidity and cost. This review presents a literature overview of BCC from pathophysiology to novel therapeutic approaches. Several histopathological BCC subtypes with different prognostic values have been described. Dermoscopy and, more recently, reflectance confocal microscopy have largely improved BCC diagnosis. Although surgery is the first-line treatment for localized BCC, other nonsurgical local treatment options are available. BCC pathogenesis depends on the interaction between environmental and genetic characteristics of the patient. Specifically, an aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway is implicated in its pathogenesis. Notably, Hedgehog signaling inhibitors, such as vismodegib and sonidegib, are successfully used as targeted treatment for advanced or metastatic BCC. Furthermore, the implementation of prevention measures has demonstrated to be useful in the patient management. View Full-Text
Keywords: basal cell carcinoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; keratinocyte carcinoma; hedgehog; PTCH1; dermoscopy; therapy basal cell carcinoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; keratinocyte carcinoma; hedgehog; PTCH1; dermoscopy; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fania, L.; Didona, D.; Morese, R.; Campana, I.; Coco, V.; Di Pietro, F.R.; Ricci, F.; Pallotta, S.; Candi, E.; Abeni, D.; Dellambra, E. Basal Cell Carcinoma: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 449. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110449

AMA Style

Fania L, Didona D, Morese R, Campana I, Coco V, Di Pietro FR, Ricci F, Pallotta S, Candi E, Abeni D, Dellambra E. Basal Cell Carcinoma: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(11):449. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110449

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fania, Luca; Didona, Dario; Morese, Roberto; Campana, Irene; Coco, Valeria; Di Pietro, Francesca R.; Ricci, Francesca; Pallotta, Sabatino; Candi, Eleonora; Abeni, Damiano; Dellambra, Elena. 2020. "Basal Cell Carcinoma: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches" Biomedicines 8, no. 11: 449. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110449

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