Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease that affects over 9% of the United States population and is closely linked to obesity. While obesity was once thought to stem from a sedentary lifestyle and diets high in fat, recent evidence supports the idea that there is more complexity pertinent to the issue. The human gut microbiome has recently been the focus in terms of influencing disease onset. Evidence has shown that the microbiome may be more closely related to T2DM than what was originally thought. High fat diets typically result in poor microbiome heath, which then shifts the gut into a state of dysbiosis. Dysbiosis can then lead to metabolic deregulation, including increased insulin resistance and inflammation, two key factors in the development of T2DM. The purpose of this review is to discuss how microbiome relates to T2DM onset, especially considering obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation.
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