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Primary Membranous Glomerulonephritis: The Role of Serum and Urine Biomarkers in Patient Management

1
Histopathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Physiology Unit, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, Federal University Lafia, Lafia, Nasarawa 950102, Nigeria
4
Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7040086
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
The detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin domain containing 7A THSD7A among primary membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) patients transformed the diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis. Anti-PLA2R can be detected in 70–90% of primary MGN patients while anti-THSD7A in 2–3% of anti-PLA2R negative primary MGN patients depending on the technique used. Serum and urine samples are less invasive and non-invasive, respectively, and thus can detect the presence of anti-PLA2R and anti-THSD7A with higher sensitivity and specificity, which is significant in patient monitoring and prognosis. It is better than exposing patients to a frequent biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. Different techniques of detection of PLA2R and THSD7A in patients’ urine and sera were reviewed to provide newer and alternative techniques. We proposed the use of biomarkers (PLA2R and THSD7A) in the diagnosis, treatment decision, and follow-up of patients with primary MGN. In addition, other prognostic renal biomarkers like retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta-2 microglobulin were reviewed to detect the progression of renal damage for early intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: M-type phospholipase A2; thrombospondin type containing domain A7; retinol binding protein; beta-2 microglobulin; membranous glomerulonephritis; neutral endopeptidase M-type phospholipase A2; thrombospondin type containing domain A7; retinol binding protein; beta-2 microglobulin; membranous glomerulonephritis; neutral endopeptidase
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Maifata, S.M.; Hod, R.; Zakaria, F.; Abd Ghani, F. Primary Membranous Glomerulonephritis: The Role of Serum and Urine Biomarkers in Patient Management. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 86.

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