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Human Granzyme B Based Targeted Cytolytic Fusion Proteins

Medical Biotechnology and Immunotherapy Unit, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
South African Research Chair in Cancer Biotechnology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 72;
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immuno-Active Cancer Therapeutics)
PDF [445 KB, uploaded 20 June 2018]


Cancer immunotherapy aims to selectively target and kill tumor cells whilst limiting the damage to healthy tissues. Controlled delivery of plant, bacterial and human toxins or enzymes has been shown to promote the induction of apoptosis in cancerous cells. The 4th generation of targeted effectors are being designed to be as humanized as possible—a solution to the problem of immunogenicity encountered with existing generations. Granzymes are serine proteases which naturally function in humans as integral cytolytic effectors during the programmed cell death of cancerous and pathogen-infected cells. Secreted predominantly by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, granzymes function mechanistically by caspase-dependent or caspase-independent pathways. These natural characteristics make granzymes one of the most promising human enzymes for use in the development of fusion protein-based targeted therapeutic strategies for various cancers. In this review, we explore research involving the use of granzymes as cytolytic effectors fused to antibody fragments as selective binding domains. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; granzyme B (GrB); human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs); immunotoxins (ITs) cancer immunotherapy; granzyme B (GrB); human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs); immunotoxins (ITs)

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Hlongwane, P.; Mungra, N.; Madheswaran, S.; Akinrinmade, O.A.; Chetty, S.; Barth, S. Human Granzyme B Based Targeted Cytolytic Fusion Proteins. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 72.

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