Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Engineered Aptamers to Probe Molecular Interactions on the Cell Surface
Previous Article in Journal
Editorial of the Special Issue: Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aptamer Cell-Based Selection: Overview and Advances
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Toward the Selection of Cell Targeting Aptamers with Extended Biological Functionalities to Facilitate Endosomal Escape of Cargoes

by 1,2,†, 1,2,3,*,† and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
4
Department of Bioengineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030051
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Aptamers for Biomedical Applications)
Over the past decades there have been exciting and rapid developments of highly specific molecules to bind cancer antigens that are overexpressed on the surfaces of malignant cells. Nanomedicine aims to exploit these ligands to generate nanoscale platforms for targeted cancer therapy, and to do so with negligible off-target effects. Aptamers are structured nucleic acids that bind to defined molecular targets ranging from small molecules and proteins to whole cells or viruses. They are selected through an iterative process of amplification and enrichment called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment), in which a combinatorial oligonucleotide library is exposed to the target of interest for several repetitive rounds. Nucleic acid ligands able to bind and internalize into malignant cells have been extensively used as tools for targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads both in vitro and in vivo. However, current cell targeting aptamer platforms suffer from limitations that have slowed their translation to the clinic. This is especially true for applications in which the cargo must reach the cytosol to exert its biological activity, as only a small percentage of the endocytosed cargo is typically able to translocate into the cytosol. Innovative technologies and selection strategies are required to enhance cytoplasmic delivery. In this review, we describe current selection methods used to generate aptamers that target cancer cells, and we highlight some of the factors that affect productive endosomal escape of cargoes. We also give an overview of the most promising strategies utilized to improve and monitor endosomal escape of therapeutic cargoes. The methods we highlight exploit tools and technologies that can potentially be incorporated in the SELEX process. Innovative selection protocols may identify aptamers with extended biological functionalities that allow effective cytosolic translocation of therapeutics. This in turn may facilitate successful translation of these platforms into clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamers; targeted drug delivery; endosomal escape; SELEX; cancer therapy aptamers; targeted drug delivery; endosomal escape; SELEX; cancer therapy
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Tawiah, K.D.; Porciani, D.; Burke, D.H. Toward the Selection of Cell Targeting Aptamers with Extended Biological Functionalities to Facilitate Endosomal Escape of Cargoes. Biomedicines 2017, 5, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030051

AMA Style

Tawiah KD, Porciani D, Burke DH. Toward the Selection of Cell Targeting Aptamers with Extended Biological Functionalities to Facilitate Endosomal Escape of Cargoes. Biomedicines. 2017; 5(3):51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tawiah, Kwaku D.; Porciani, David; Burke, Donald H. 2017. "Toward the Selection of Cell Targeting Aptamers with Extended Biological Functionalities to Facilitate Endosomal Escape of Cargoes" Biomedicines 5, no. 3: 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030051

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop