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Article

Red-Shifted Environmental Fluorophores and Their Use for the Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria

1
EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK
2
EPSRC Proteus IRC Hub, Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
3
Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark Lowry
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060117
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Near-Infrared Fluorophores for Biomedical Research)
Two novel, water-soluble, merocyanine fluorophores were readily prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. Full optical characterization was performed in a series of protic and aprotic solvents, and the dyes displayed fluorescence in the red region with up to a 20-fold decrease in brightness in water, demonstrating a strong environmental sensitivity hereby termed as solvato-fluorogenicity (to distinguish from solvatochromism). Shorter fluorescent lifetimes were also measured in water, which confirmed this character. These dyes were conjugated to a modified polymyxin scaffold that allowed fluorescence “switch-on” upon binding to Gram-negative bacterial membranes, and selective fluorescence detection of bacteria in a wash-free protocol. View Full-Text
Keywords: merocyanines; solvato-fluorogenicity; environmental fluorophores; optical imaging; bacterial detection; fluorescent labelling; fluorescence lifetime merocyanines; solvato-fluorogenicity; environmental fluorophores; optical imaging; bacterial detection; fluorescent labelling; fluorescence lifetime
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MDPI and ACS Style

Megia-Fernandez, A.; Klausen, M.; Mills, B.; Brown, G.E.; McEwan, H.; Finlayson, N.; Dhaliwal, K.; Bradley, M. Red-Shifted Environmental Fluorophores and Their Use for the Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 117. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060117

AMA Style

Megia-Fernandez A, Klausen M, Mills B, Brown GE, McEwan H, Finlayson N, Dhaliwal K, Bradley M. Red-Shifted Environmental Fluorophores and Their Use for the Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(6):117. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060117

Chicago/Turabian Style

Megia-Fernandez, Alicia, Maxime Klausen, Bethany Mills, Gillian E. Brown, Heather McEwan, Neil Finlayson, Kevin Dhaliwal, and Mark Bradley. 2021. "Red-Shifted Environmental Fluorophores and Their Use for the Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria" Chemosensors 9, no. 6: 117. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060117

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