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Article

Development of Portable E-Nose System for Fast Diagnosis of Whitefly Infestation in Tomato Plant in Greenhouse

1
Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Center for Renewable Carbon, The University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
3
BorgWarner Turbo System Engineering GmbH, 67292 Kirchheimbolande, Germany
4
Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
5
Application Technology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: James Covington and Jose Vicente Ros Lis
Chemosensors 2021, 9(11), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110297
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
An electronic nose (E-nose) system equipped with a gas sensor array and real-time control panel was developed for a fast diagnosis of whitefly infestation in tomato plants. Profile changes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from tomato plants under different treatments (i.e., whitefly infestation, mechanical damage, and no treatment) were successfully determined by the developed E-nose system. A rapid sensor response with high sensitivity towards whitefly-infested tomato plants was observed in the E-nose system. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) indicated that the E-nose system was able to provide accurate distinguishment between whitefly-infested plants and healthy plants, with the first three principal components (PCs) accounting for 87.4% of the classification. To reveal the mechanism of whitefly infestation in tomato plants, VOC profiles of whitefly-infested plants and mechanically damaged plants were investigated by using the E-nose system and GC-MS. VOCs of 2-nonanol, oxime-, methoxy-phenyl, and n-hexadecanoic acid were only detected in whitefly-infested plants, while compounds of dodecane and 4,6-dimethyl were only found in mechanically damaged plant samples. Those unique VOC profiles of different tomato plant groups could be considered as bio-markers for diagnosing different damages. Moreover, the E-nose system was demonstrated to have the capability to differentiate whitefly-infested plants and mechanically damaged plants. The relationship between sensor performance and VOC profiles confirmed that the developed E-nose system could be used as a fast and smart device to detect whitefly infestation in greenhouse cultivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose system; sensors array; whitefly infestation; tomato plant; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) electronic nose system; sensors array; whitefly infestation; tomato plant; volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cui, S.; Cao, L.; Acosta, N.; Zhu, H.; Ling, P.P. Development of Portable E-Nose System for Fast Diagnosis of Whitefly Infestation in Tomato Plant in Greenhouse. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 297. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110297

AMA Style

Cui S, Cao L, Acosta N, Zhu H, Ling PP. Development of Portable E-Nose System for Fast Diagnosis of Whitefly Infestation in Tomato Plant in Greenhouse. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(11):297. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110297

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cui, Shaoqing, Lin Cao, Nuris Acosta, Heping Zhu, and Peter P. Ling 2021. "Development of Portable E-Nose System for Fast Diagnosis of Whitefly Infestation in Tomato Plant in Greenhouse" Chemosensors 9, no. 11: 297. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110297

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