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Open AccessArticle

Design of A Low-Cost and Disposable Paper-Based Immunosensor for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin B1

1
Nanotechnology National Laboratory for Agriculture, Embrapa Instrumentação, São Carlos 13560-970, SP, Brazil
2
São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, São Carlos 13560-970, SP, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Chemosensors 2020, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8030087
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 5 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Electrochemical Devices and Sensors)
We report a paper-based electrochemical immunosensor made with sustainable materials to detect aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic, carcinogenic mycotoxin found in food. The immunosensor was prepared with a waterproof paper substrate and low-cost graphite-based conductive ink through a simple cut-printing method. The working electrode was functionalized with a drop-cast film of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/chitosan on which a layer of anti-AFB1 monoclonal antibodies was immobilized covalently. The architecture of the immunosensor was confirmed with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), including the effective immobilization of the active layer of anti-AFB1. With EIS as the principle of detection, the immunosensor could detect AFB1 in the range from 1 to 30 ng·mL−1, and detection limit of 0.62 ng·mL−1. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect AFB1 in food according to regulatory agencies. The immunosensor exhibited good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, and selectivity in experiments with a possible interferent. Furthermore, detection of AFB1 in maize flour samples yielded recovery of 97–99%, in a demonstration of the possible use of the paper-based immunosensor to detect AFB1 using extraction solutions from food samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: disposable immunosensor; electrochemical detection; aflatoxin B1; chitosan; carbon nanotubes; paper-based sensor disposable immunosensor; electrochemical detection; aflatoxin B1; chitosan; carbon nanotubes; paper-based sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Migliorini, F.L.; Santos, D.M.; Soares, A.C.; Mattoso, L.H.C.; Oliveira, O.N., Jr.; Correa, D.S. Design of A Low-Cost and Disposable Paper-Based Immunosensor for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin B1. Chemosensors 2020, 8, 87.

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