Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Development of an Electrochemical Sensor for NADH Determination Based on a Caffeic Acid Redox Mediator Supported on Carbon Black
Previous Article in Journal
Ascorbic Acid Rejection Characteristics of Modified Platinum Electrodes: A Shelf Life Investigation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters
Open AccessReview

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

by Elio Desimoni *,† and Barbara Brunetti
DeFENS, University of Milan, via Celoria 2, Milan (I) 20133, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Michael Ongaro and Paolo Ugo
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 70-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors3020070
Received: 3 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and speciation information concerning the sensor surface. Nevertheless, XPS remains rather underused in this field. The aim of this paper is to review selected articles which evidence the useful performances of XPS in characterizing the top surface layers of chemically modified sensors and biosensors. A concise introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy gives to the reader the essential background. The application of XPS for characterizing sensors suitable for food and environmental analysis is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemically modified sensors; biosensors; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; surface analysis of electrodes; electrocatalysis chemically modified sensors; biosensors; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; surface analysis of electrodes; electrocatalysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Desimoni, E.; Brunetti, B. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review. Chemosensors 2015, 3, 70-117.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop