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Open AccessArticle

Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Rome 00133, Italy
2
Consorzio Interuniversitario INBB, Rome 00100, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Bio-Agroalimentari, Istituto di Cristallografia (IC-CNR), Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome 00015, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paolo Ugo and Michael Ongaro
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 129-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors3020129
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide) was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition). The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v) in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen-printed electrode; biosensor; inhibition; butyrylcholinesterase; paraoxon; flow analysis screen-printed electrode; biosensor; inhibition; butyrylcholinesterase; paraoxon; flow analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arduini, F.; Neagu, D.; Scognamiglio, V.; Patarino, S.; Moscone, D.; Palleschi, G. Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. Chemosensors 2015, 3, 129-145.

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