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European Clinical Neuropsychology: Role in Healthcare and Access to Neuropsychological Services

Department of Psychology, MSH University of Applied Sciences & Medical University, D-20457 Hamburg, Germany
Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
Lab of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, 351 95 Växjö, Sweden
Department of Social Sciences, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nicosia, 2417 Nicosia, Cyprus
Clinical Neuropsychology-Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
Association for Neuropsychology Austria, 4921 Bad Häring, Austria
Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
GHU Paris Psychiatry & Neurosciences, 75014 Paris, France
Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Pedagogy and Applied Psychology, University of Padua, 35122 Padua, Italy
Department of Psychology, Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
Psychological Methodology Department, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Research Center of Neurology, 125367 Moscow, Russia
Department of Neurology, Charles University in Prague, 110 00 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Health Psychology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
School of Psychology, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pedram Sendi
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 734;
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 6 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
This study analyzed aspects of the work of clinical neuropsychologists across Europe. There are no published comparisons between European countries regarding the nature of clinical neuropsychologists’ work. Forty-one national psychological and neuropsychological societies were approached, of which 31 (76%) responded. Data from seven countries with less than 10 neuropsychologists were excluded. A license is required to practice clinical neuropsychology in 50% of the countries. Clinical neuropsychologists work independently in 62.5%. Diagnostic/assessment work is the most frequently reported activity (54%). Most neuropsychologists work in public hospitals, followed by health centers. Adult neuropsychology was the most frequent area of activity. Services in public institutions are covered by public entities (45.8%), or by a combination of patient funds and public entities (29.2%) and only 4.2% by the patient; whereas services in private institutions are covered by the patient (26.1%) and the combination of patient, public entities (21.7%) or patient and private entities (17.4%). The data suggest that the number of neuropsychologists working across European countries is considerably low in comparison to other medical professionals. The results of the survey identified similar aspects of neuropsychologists’ work, despite variations in terms of reimbursement and mechanisms, reflecting economic and healthcare differences. Estimates on the number of clinical neuropsychologists suggest insufficient access to neuropsychological services. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical neuropsychology; working conditions; healthcare; European study clinical neuropsychology; working conditions; healthcare; European study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kasten, E.; Barbosa, F.; Kosmidis, M.H.; Persson, B.A.; Constantinou, M.; Baker, G.A.; Lettner, S.; Hokkanen, L.; Ponchel, A.; Mondini, S.; Jonsdottir, M.K.; Varako, N.; Nikolai, T.; Pranckeviciene, A.; Harper, L.; Hessen, E. European Clinical Neuropsychology: Role in Healthcare and Access to Neuropsychological Services. Healthcare 2021, 9, 734.

AMA Style

Kasten E, Barbosa F, Kosmidis MH, Persson BA, Constantinou M, Baker GA, Lettner S, Hokkanen L, Ponchel A, Mondini S, Jonsdottir MK, Varako N, Nikolai T, Pranckeviciene A, Harper L, Hessen E. European Clinical Neuropsychology: Role in Healthcare and Access to Neuropsychological Services. Healthcare. 2021; 9(6):734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kasten, Erich, Fernando Barbosa, Mary H. Kosmidis, Bengt A. Persson, Marios Constantinou, Gus A. Baker, Sandra Lettner, Laura Hokkanen, Amélie Ponchel, Sara Mondini, Maria K. Jonsdottir, Nataliya Varako, Tomas Nikolai, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Lauren Harper, and Erik Hessen. 2021. "European Clinical Neuropsychology: Role in Healthcare and Access to Neuropsychological Services" Healthcare 9, no. 6: 734.

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