We investigated the effects of a 15-week complex exercise program on osteoarthritis and sarcopenia by analyzing anabolic effects and the impact on the activities of daily living (ADLs). Nineteen women aged ≥60 years with sarcopenia (SEG, n = 9) or diagnosed with osteoarthritis with sarcopenia (OSEG, n = 10) were enrolled and underwent an exercise program. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), irisin, myostatin, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) levels were analyzed pre- and post-intervention. Thigh cross-sectional area (TCSA) was measured pre- and post-intervention via computed tomography. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPBB) were assessed pre- and post-interventions to assess ADL. There was a significant interaction effect between SEG and OSEG at the IGF-1 level post-intervention. Irisin increased and myostatin decreased post-intervention in both groups. IL-10 increased and TNF-α decreased post-intervention with a significant interaction effect in the OSEG group. TCSAs increased post-intervention in both groups. There was a significant interaction between the two groups. OSEG showed a greater WOMAC decrease and SPPB increase post-intervention, and there was a significant interaction effect. Combined exercise may be effective in improving biochemical factors, anabolic effects, and ADL in elderly women with osteoarthritis and sarcopenia.
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