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Open AccessArticle

Severe Mental Health Symptoms during COVID-19: A Comparison of the United Kingdom and Austria

1
Department for Psychotherapy and Biopsychosocial Health, Danube University Krems, 3500 Krems an der Donau, Austria
2
Department of Work, Organization and Society, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabrizia Giannotta and Yunhwan Kim
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020191
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in Times of Pandemic: Protective and Risk Factors)
This study evaluated severe psychological symptoms in the United Kingdom and Austria after four weeks of lockdown due to COVID-19. Two cross-sectional online surveys were performed with representative population samples according to age, gender, region, and education. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), anxiety symptoms with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and insomnia symptoms with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). The sample size was N = 1005 for Austria (52% women) and N = 1006 (54% women) for the UK. In total, 3.2% of the Austrian sample and 12.1% of the UK sample had severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 20 points; χ2(1) = 57.24; p < 0.001), 6.0% in Austria vs. 18.9% in the UK had severe anxiety symptoms (GAD-7 ≥ 15 points; χ2(1) = 76.17; p < 0.001), and 2.2% in Austria and 7.3% in the UK had severe insomnia (ISI; ≥22 points; χ2(1) = 28.89; p < 0.001). The prevalence of severe depressive, anxiety or insomnia symptoms was around three times higher in the UK than in Austria. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; mental health; depression; anxiety; insomnia; United Kingdom; Austria COVID-19 lockdown; mental health; depression; anxiety; insomnia; United Kingdom; Austria
MDPI and ACS Style

Budimir, S.; Pieh, C.; Dale, R.; Probst, T. Severe Mental Health Symptoms during COVID-19: A Comparison of the United Kingdom and Austria. Healthcare 2021, 9, 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020191

AMA Style

Budimir S, Pieh C, Dale R, Probst T. Severe Mental Health Symptoms during COVID-19: A Comparison of the United Kingdom and Austria. Healthcare. 2021; 9(2):191. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Budimir, Sanja; Pieh, Christoph; Dale, Rachel; Probst, Thomas. 2021. "Severe Mental Health Symptoms during COVID-19: A Comparison of the United Kingdom and Austria" Healthcare 9, no. 2: 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020191

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