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Towards the Improved Accuracy of Hepatitis E Diagnosis in Vulnerable and Target Groups: A Global Perspective on the Current State of Knowledge and the Implications for Practice

1
Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
University Centre Varaždin, University North, HR-42000 Varaždin, Croatia
3
Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr. Zora Profozić Polyclinic, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, HR-52100 Pula, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdel-Latif Mohamed
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020133
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Perinatal and Neonatal Medicine)
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a positive single-stranded, icosahedral, quasi-enveloped RNA virus in the genus Orthohepevirus of the family Hepeviridae. Orthohepevirus A is the most numerous species of the genus Orthohepevirus and consists of eight different HEV genotypes that can cause infection in humans. HEV is a pathogen transmitted via the fecal–oral route, most commonly by consuming fecally contaminated water. A particular danger is the HEV-1 genotype, which poses a very high risk of vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus. Several outbreaks caused by this genotype have been reported, resulting in many premature births, abortions, and also neonatal and maternal deaths. Genotype 3 is more prevalent in Europe; however, due to the openness of the market, i.e., trade-in animals which represent a natural reservoir of HEV (such as pigs), there is a possibility of spreading HEV infections outside endemic areas. This problem is indeed global and requires increased hygiene measures in endemic areas, which entails special care for pregnant women in both endemic and non-endemic regions. As already highlighted, pregnant women could have significant health consequences due to the untimely diagnosis of HEV infection; hence, this is a population that should be targeted with a specific combination of testing approaches to ensure optimal specificity and sensitivity. Until we advance from predominantly supportive treatment in pregnancy and appraise the safety and efficacy of a HEV vaccine in this population, such screening approaches represent the mainstay of our public health endeavors. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E; hepatitis E virus; pregnancy; diagnosis hepatitis E; hepatitis E virus; pregnancy; diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Talapko, J.; Meštrović, T.; Pustijanac, E.; Škrlec, I. Towards the Improved Accuracy of Hepatitis E Diagnosis in Vulnerable and Target Groups: A Global Perspective on the Current State of Knowledge and the Implications for Practice. Healthcare 2021, 9, 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020133

AMA Style

Talapko J, Meštrović T, Pustijanac E, Škrlec I. Towards the Improved Accuracy of Hepatitis E Diagnosis in Vulnerable and Target Groups: A Global Perspective on the Current State of Knowledge and the Implications for Practice. Healthcare. 2021; 9(2):133. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Talapko, Jasminka, Tomislav Meštrović, Emina Pustijanac, and Ivana Škrlec. 2021. "Towards the Improved Accuracy of Hepatitis E Diagnosis in Vulnerable and Target Groups: A Global Perspective on the Current State of Knowledge and the Implications for Practice" Healthcare 9, no. 2: 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020133

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