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Article

Association of Mortality-Related Risk Factors in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pak-Austria Fachhochschule, Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, Haripur 22621, Pakistan
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Department of Mathematics, Wah Campus, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan
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College of Public Administration, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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Department of Psychology, Jinhenyi School of Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310023, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pierpaolo Di Micco and Anna Annunziata
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111468
Received: 6 October 2021 / Revised: 24 October 2021 / Accepted: 27 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
COVID-19 is a rapidly disseminating infectious disease conferred by the World Health Organization (WHO) as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics data have been identified for patients with COVID-19, but mortality-related risk factors and a comprehensive clinical course of disease in a developing country have not been specifically defined. This retrospective, single-center cohort study involved all successive inpatients having a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with deceased or discharged clinical outcomes from 1 January to 10 May 2021. Data were extracted from electronic medical records on demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings as well as complications faced and treatment provided during follow-up, involving serial samples for viral RNA identification, and compared between the dead and survivors. To investigate the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality, we employed the multivariate logistic regression model. In this study, 2048 patients were involved, 1458 of whom were discharged, and 590 died in hospital. More than half of patients were identified as male with old age being the potential risk factor of mortality. Exactly 94.8% of all patients presented with fever at the time of admission. Several comorbidities were present in the study population, with the most frequent comorbidity being cardiovascular diseases (1177 of 2048) and hypertension (975 of 2048) followed by cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Mortality rates for infected patients were observed as higher in severe patients (46.3%) compared with non-severe cases (26.1%) during a follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed a significant association of in-hospital mortality of patients with older age, presence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases as underlying comorbidities, increased level of cardiac troponin I and d-dimer concentration on admission, as well as septicemia and ARDS as a complication during illness. To minimize the risk of death in COVID19 patients, as well as the risk of severe complications, urgent public health measures should be properly planned and implemented on those vulnerable populations. To detect early manifestations of clinical problems, thorough and regular follow-up is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk-factors; in-hospital mortality; public health; epidemiology COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk-factors; in-hospital mortality; public health; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rehman, S.; Rehman, N.; Mumtaz, A.; Jiang, J. Association of Mortality-Related Risk Factors in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1468. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111468

AMA Style

Rehman S, Rehman N, Mumtaz A, Jiang J. Association of Mortality-Related Risk Factors in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Healthcare. 2021; 9(11):1468. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehman, Shazia, Nadia Rehman, Ayesha Mumtaz, and Jindong Jiang. 2021. "Association of Mortality-Related Risk Factors in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study" Healthcare 9, no. 11: 1468. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111468

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